Sociology Test III

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What was the name of the free health clinic nearly 400 African-American men joined at Tuskegee University in the 1930?

A)
Miss River's Lodge

What is the variable that most distinguishes one race from another?

B)
Physical characteristics

What is the slaughtering of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?

B)
Genocide

What term did the Serbs use when they massacred the Muslims in Bosnia simply because of their religious affiliation?

A)
Ethnic Cleansing

What are the two major myths of race?

C)
Certain races are superior to others and pure races exist

6) How many racial groups did anthropologist Ashley Montagu identify in his typological matrix?

C) forty

7) Race is to biology as ________ is to cultural heritage.

C) ethnicity

8) Who was the sociologist who defined minority groups as people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?

A) Louis Wirth

9) Although the media refers to Tiger Woods as an African American, as a boy he used the term "Cablinasian." What racial and national identities are included in being a "Cablinasian"?

D) Thai, Chinese, Native American, African American, Caucasian

10) Erica was once classified as a Quadroon. In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Erica?

D) She was classified as being one-fourth black and three fourths white.

11) Hindu was a choice on the U.S. Census as a race from 1920 to 1940. What is the most logical reason it was removed?

B) Hindu is a religion, not a race.

12) Which nation is the least race-conscious and permits a wide range of latitude in classifying a person "white" or "black" with seven terms to describe race?

A) Brazil

13) Mickey takes great pride in being Irish. He wears a button that says "Kiss Me...I'm Irish," flies the Irish flag outside his home, dresses in green quite often, and participates in the St. Patrick's Day parade every year. What is Mickey doing as it relates to race and ethnicity?

A) Mickey is involved in ethnic work.

14) Which statement is most true of dominant groups?

D) The dominant group has greater power, privilege, and social status.

15) George is a clerk in a hardware store. When an African American comes into the store, George provides closer monitoring because he believes that African Americans will steal his merchandise. What term most applies to the unequal treatment that George applies to African Americans who are actually customers?

A) discrimination

16) Prejudice describes ________ while discrimination describes ________.

C) attitudes; actions

17) Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sociologically, how would one describe Sam's actions?

A) Sam is guilty of prejudice and discrimination.

18) What conclusion did sociologist Kathleen Blee reach after she studied women who joined hate groups?

D) Women who join hate groups learn to be racist after they join a hate group.

19) What analogy does the author of the text use to describe the concept of the melting pot?

C) an ethnic stew

20) At one time African Americans made efforts to straighten their hair to look more "white" and many believed lighter blacks were more intelligent than dark-skinned blacks. What is this phenomenon called?

B) the internalization of the norms of the dominant group

21) People who are African American and Hispanic are often turned down for loans, even though their credit histories are similar to white applicants. What do sociologists call this form of treatment?

D) institutional discrimination

22) Chris, a mortgage loan manager, works for a bank that has a long-standing policy of refusing to grant mortgage loans to persons of Latino heritage. The action of the bank is best described as ________.

C) institutional discrimination

23) What term refers to a racial, ethnic, or religious minority that a member of the dominant group uses to unfairly blame for their failure to achieve desired goals?

C) scapegoat

24) Police officers and other people who must enforce rules, regulations, and laws are often accused of exhibiting prejudice because they view the world as being "white and black," or "guilty and not guilty," without shades of gray. Based on this assessment, which statement is most applicable?

C) The behavior of police officers can be attributed to the authoritarian personality.

25) What is the major difference between how sociologists and psychologists attempt to understand prejudice?

C) Psychologists examine conditions inside the individual, and sociologists examine conditions outside the
individual.

26) What conclusion did the Sherifs reach following their experiment in which boys at a summer camp were assigned different cabins which competed against each other in sports and for status?

B) Prejudice is functional as it creates in-group solidarity.

27) Which sociological perspective best explains the concept of a reserve labor force and a split labor market?

B) conflict theory

28) Which of the following serves as the best example of the split labor market?

D) Italian immigrants work in the coal mines for less money than third generation Germans and Welsh.

29) What do sociologists call a tendency for people to interpret labels in a particular way while the same labels lead
them to be blind to the messages they actually convey?

B) selective perception

30) Which sociological perspective is the concept of selective perception most affiliated?

C) symbolic interactionism

31) In the 18th century, executioners wore black hoods to conceal their identities and separate their actions from a sense of being a good and moral person. What is such a tactic called?

C) compartmentalization

32) During the "Night of Broken Glass" (November 9, 1938) Adolf Hitler ordered his brown shirts, the Hitler Youth, and Gestapo to destroy Jewish businesses and confiscate what money they had in bank accounts. What are such tactics that "encourage" a group of people, in this case the Jews, to vacate a territory called?

C) indirect population transfer

33) What term describes a form of internal colonialism practiced in South Africa when dominant white Afrikaners
exploited black Africans?

D) apartheid

34) What is the intergroup strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?

A) segregation

35) What is the method of intergroup relations that allows the minority group to adopt the dominant group's patterns
in their own way and at their own speed?

D) permissible assimilation

36) Which European nation provides the best example of multiculturalism?

D) Switzerland

37) Who are Chicanos?

D) Americans from Mexico.

38) In 1955, who was the African American woman who refused to stand on the bus so white people could sit and inspired the civil rights movement?

C) Rosa Parks

39) Of all ethnic groups, in which is it most likely that children will grow up with two parents and the least likely to be born to a single mother?

B) Asian American

40) In the 19th century, what were the two patterns of intergroup relations Native Americans were subjected to by the dominant white Americans?

D) genocide and direct population transfer

What do gender, age, race, and ethnicity share in respect to their sociological significance?

B) They are all master statuses that cut across all aspects of social life.

Which of the following is the best example of gender stratification?

C) Women are not permitted to vote, own property, or testify in court in some societies.

What is an unequal access to power, property, and prestige based on one's sex?

C) gender stratification

What is the best reason age and sex are considered master statuses?

A) They cut across all aspects of social life.

Which qualities are examples of primary sex characteristics?

A) Vagina, penis, and other organs related to reproduction.

What do sociologists emphasize in their response to biologists that genetics are not the principal factor in
determining human behavior?

A) Behavior among men and women would be more universal around the world.

What is the dominant sociological position to explain gender-based behavior?

B) Social factors are the reason for human behavior.

Why are women classified as a minority group?

C) Women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics.

How did Frederick Engels explain the development of patriarchy?

A) Engels believed patriarchy came with the development of private property.

In some societies, such as Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who is believed to have brought disgrace to the family may be killed by a male relative. What is this practice called?

A) honor killing

Female circumcision is a custom in some societies. How do feminists view this practice?

B) They consider it a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality.

What were the goals of the second wave of the women's movement that began in the 1960s?

A) The goals are broad ranging from raising women's pay to changing policies on violence against women.

Research of hospital records revealed that women were more likely than men to die from coronary bypass
surgery. When researchers looked for an answer, what did they discover was the most likely cause of these differing rates in death from this surgery?

A) unintentional sexual discrimination

The fact that 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates what concept?

B) gender tracking

Leticia has worked for twenty years in the public relations department of a large firm and has been the vicepresident for the past ten years. It is unlikely she will ever be promoted to the top executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects and is quite capable. What sociological concept does this scenario illustrate?

A) the "glass ceiling"

Who was the first woman elected as minority leader in the House of Representatives?

...

What is the term used to describe the number of years people can plan on living?

D) life expectancy

In which sociological perspective do theorists focus on how the meaning of "old age" shifts based on the
changing conditions of society?

D) symbolic interactionism

Which American president had the greatest influence in developing the Social Security program?

C) Franklin D. Roosevelt

What is the number of workers required to support one dependent member of society called?

C) dependency ratio

Gender expectations begin to influence how children are treated

a. from the moment of birth

Historically, the berdaches in Navajo society were

d. anatomically normal men who were defined as a third gender.

A more current term for hermaphroditism is _____.

b. intersex

The combination of an X and a Y chromosome generally produces a person who is a _____.

b. male

From a sociological perspective

b. biology alone does not determine gender identity.

In what ways are men and women different physically?

d. all of the above

One's definition of oneself as a woman or a man is termed one's _____.

a. gender identity

In the media

c. the sexualization of women is extensive.

Images of women in advertising

a. make them appear subordinate to men.

Which of the following is most common throughout the world?

a. patriarchy

Globally, the United Nations estimates that the value of women's unpaid work, in the home and community, amounts to at least _____.

c. $ 11 trillion

What is the name of a society in which a man has more than one wife?

A) polygynous

Sylvia legally has three husbands--Ryan, Matthew, and Frank. In view of this, which assessment most accurately applies to Sylvia?

C) Sylvia is living in a society that practices polyandry.

Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise occupy the same apartment, share routine chores such as cooking, cleaning and laundry, and each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs.Which term most applies to the relationship between Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise?

B) Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise are a household.

When Frank was only a year old he was "unofficially" adopted by another family on the block when Frank's parents were killed in an automobile accident. Frank lived with this family until he enlisted in the military when he was 19. How would sociologists classify the adopting family that Frank lived with for 18 years?

B) It was Frank's family of orientation.

What term describes a family in which grandparents, parents, children, and grandchildren live under one roof?

C) the extended family

Which of the following statements is least accurate regarding family and marriage?

A) Characteristics of marriage are the same in industrial and traditional societies.

Of the following concepts, which of the following is the best example of exogamy?

C) The incest taboo prohibits close relatives from marrying one another.

Regina lives in a society in which children are related to their father's relatives, but not their mother's relatives. What type of descent system does this illustrate?

C) patrilineal

Which perspective is most aligned with the belief that family controls economic production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, and reproduction?

A) the functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective emphasizes power as the major source of difficulties between married men and women?

B) the conflict perspective

Approximately what is the percentage and number of mixed marriages in the United States based on differences in race?

B) 7 percent or over 4 million couples

In India, most of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. Which statement best explains these differences in marriage practices?

C) A society's marriage practices match societal values and patterns of stratification.

In which of the following married couples is the woman more likely to have a higher level of education than her husband?

A) Rachonne, an African-American woman and Paul, an African-American man

Of the following racial groups, which one is most likely to have a family headed by a married couple?

C) Asian American

Which of the following variables has the strongest influence on the variations found in American family life?

A) social class and culture

What was the first nation to legalize same-sex marriages?

B) Denmark

What is the profile of divorced women who are most likely to remarry?

A) young mothers and those with less education

Changes in the structure of the family

c. have created new problems of balancing family and employment.

The family is intertwined with religion

c. in part because the family is our first exposure to religious beliefs.

Which of the following is NOT part of the sociological definition of family?

c. a social unit bound together by love and affection.

The practice of men or women having multiple partners at the same time is called _____.

b. polygamy

The practice of a sexually exclusive marriage with one spouse at a time is called _____.

a. monogamy

Within the U.S. people generally marry

c. a person from similar race, class, and religious background

In the U.S. until 1967, laws prohibited marriage between Whites and _____.

d. all of the above

People considered family members who are not actually related by ancestry or adoption are called _____.

c. fictive kin

According to functionalism, families exist to

d. all of the above

_____ theorists view families as essential to maintaining inequality in society.

b. Conflict

According to _____, families are gendered institutions that reflect the gender hierarchies in society.

d. feminist theory

Following a divorce

c. the economic status of women declines substantially.

Among married-couple families, one of the greatest changes in recent years has been

a. the increased participation of women in the paid labor force.

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