an apparent but false association between variables (the observed relationship is explained by some third variable).
the "spread" of a set of data
the straight average
the most common quantity/quality in a set of data
the middle quantity/quality in a set of data
consistency (weight scale)
does your measurement tool measure what it is supposed to measure? ex: does church attendance measure "religiosity" or does it measure attendance?
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
1 of the 4 most common research methods: highly controlled conditions, studies cause & effect, applies random selection, random assignment (exp. & control groups), pretests dependent variables, applies a stimulus, and post-tests to measure change.
1 of the 4 most common research methods: most popular to measure intangibles (attitudes, beliefs, values), quantitative in nature (analysis based on interpretation of numerical data), uses population, sample, and EPSEM. Forms: questionnaires and interviews.
1 of the 4 most common research methods: qualitative in nature, inquiry based on subjective interpretation (joining a cult to research that cult).
1 of the 4 most common research methods: utilizes other people's data (gss)
competence (trained), objectivity, full disclosure as a researcher (hawthorne effect's problem), be ethical and terminate all research if danger threatens a participant (zimbardo), confidentiality & anonymity (codebook), state full purpose of research.
the idea that data will be skewed when the subjects are aware that you're studying them.
the group of people/things in a population that you physically study
the total number of people/things that the study is about.
random selection, random assignment of exp. & control groups, pretest the depend. variable, apply a stimulus, post-test to measure change.
the variable that changes according to the independent variable (y)
the variable that does not change (gender, race, etc.) (x)
how things are
how things might be
allows subject to freely respond
answers are provided, easier to compute/analyze
equal probability of selection method: eliminates conscious and unconscious bias when it comes to selecting a sample
personal human inquiry: our own thoughts (jocks = athletic, teachers = typically female, etc).
shortcomings of PHI
politics, gender, limited sample, ideologies, logic, wanting to prove something
observable phenomena verifiable with our senses, grounded in fact rather than theoretical in nature
to establish a relationship
determine time order, co-variation (vary together in a systematic, non-chance way), eliminate the co-variation being explained by some 3rd variable.
making imprecise notions (concepts) precise by specifying exactly what we mean when we use particular terms
defining how to measure a concept