Chapter 5 Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice

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Which of the following statements accurately describes a characteristic of a theory?
a. A theory is based on facts and contains absolute or direct proof.
b. A theory is a single statement or concept that gives meaning to a series of events.
c. Theories cannot be tested or changed.
d. A theory is a group of concepts that form a pattern of reality.

d. A theory is a group of concepts that form a pattern of reality.

When a nursing theorist identifies a specific idea or action and then makes conclusions about general ideas, he/she is using which of the following methods?
a. Inductive reasoning
b. Nursing process
c. Deductive reasoning
d. General systems theory

a. Inductive reasoning

Which of the following theories is based on the breaking down of whole things into parts and then learning how these parts work together as a whole?
a. Adaptation theory
b. Developmental theory
c. General systems theory
d. Psychosocial theory

c. General systems theory

Which of the following statements accurately describes a characteristic of a system?
a. A system is an entity in itself and cannot communicate with or react to its environment.
b. Boundaries separate systems from each other and from their environments.
c. All systems are closed in that they do not allow energy, matter, or information to move between systems and boundaries.
d. Each system is independent of its subsystems in that a change in one element does not affect other systems.

b. Boundaries separate systems from each other and from their environments.

According to Eric Erikson's developmental theory, psychosocial development is accomplished through which of the following processes?
a. Socialization
b. Human needs
c. Heredity
d. Health status

a. Socialization

Of the four common components in theories of nursing, which of the following should be the focus of nursing?
a. Environment
b. Health
c. Nursing
d. Person

d. Person

Which of the following theorists believed that a person is a biopsychosocial being who is basically good?
a. Imogene M. King
b. Madeline Leininger
c. Sister Callista Roy
d. Jean Watson

c. Sister Callista Roy

According to Levine's theory of nursing, nursing practice should focus on which of the following?
a. The art and science of a human-to-human care process with a spiritual dimension
b. The human and the complexity of his or her relationships with the environment
c. The balance within an individual, specific to the behavioral system, when illness occurs
d. The variables affecting human response to stressors, with primary concern for the total person

b. The human and the complexity of his or her relationships with the environment

Which of the following would best define the environment in Orem's self-care model?
a. Modern society's values and expectations
b. All the patterns that exist external to the individual
c. The culture of each individual group, or society
d. The healthcare system, including the nurse

a. Modern society's values and expectations

__________ research involves the concepts of basic and applied research.

Quantitative

_________________ are abstract impressions
organized into symbols of reality.

Concepts

The ______________ theory describes the process by which living matter adjusts to other living things and to environmental conditions.

Adaptation

______________ is the patient's right to agree
knowledgeably, to participate in a study without coercion, or to refuse to participate without jeopardizing the care he/she will receive.

Informed Consent

____________ is nursing care provided that is
supported by reliable research-based evidence.

Evidence-based practice

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