The process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins. includes two stages: transcription and translation
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
an enzyme that pries the 2 strands of DNA apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotides as they base pair along the DNA template
A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place
A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes
A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
a synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
poly-A signal (AAUAAA)
polyadenylation signal acts like a telamer sequence as a 3'UTR
untranslated regions (UTR)
The regions before and after the protein coding segment
3' end added by adenine nucleotides as a buffer for these delicate RNA strands
where the introns are removed and the exons are fitted together.
noncoding regions that lie between the exons and are removed by the spliceosome
the coding segment of the mRNA that is translated and usined in polypeptide production
starts at the start codon and stops at one of the sop codons. This takes place in the cytoplasm
number of amino acids found in a protein
triplets of nucleotide bases that code for all the amino acids.
triplet code, using 3 nucleotides in mRNA to make 1 amino acid in a protein
a genetic message from a series of codons along an mRNA molecule and translate it, and it contains 1 codon
base pair with the codon from 3' to 5' creating an amino acid.
the place where translation occures
ribosomal RNA is bound within the RNA it's self.
aminoacyl site where a tRNA is bound to an amino acid
peptidyle site tRNA contains growing polypeptide chain
exit site where the tRNA exits the ribosome
begins translation at start codon (AUG) or (Met) which tells the ribosomes to attach to the mRNA, which then attach to the P site
enters the A site and binds to the stop codon. it's a protein that recognized the stop codon. it makes hydrolysis occur between the polypeptide chain that's been created and the tRNA in the P cite.
responsible for huge diversity of gene found among organisms
1 nucleotide is affected. (usually substitution mutations changing one base to another.)
one change in codon that alters 1 single amino acid in a protein
changes the codon to a stop codon. Probably much shorter strand and makes it non functional.
doesn't have any affect in amino acid sequence on the DNA strand