Respiratory System

48 terms by Innanadon 

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pulmonary ventilation

the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli

external gas exchange

the exchange of specific gases between the alveoli and the blood

internal gas exchange

the exchange of specific gases between the blood and the cells

cellular respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen and nutrients to generate energy

nares

the opening of the nose

conchac

the three projections arising from the lateral walls of each nasal cavity

larinx

the specific name for the voice box

epiglottis

the leaf-shaped structure that helps to prevent the entrance of food into the trachea

sinus

Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane.

bronchus

one of the two branches formed by division of the trachea

hilum

the notch or depression where the bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves enter the lung

pharynx

the area bellow the nasal cavities that is common to both the digestive and respiratory systems

bronchiole

a small air-conducting tube containing a smooth muscle layer but little or no cartilage

surfactant

A substance that decreases the surface tension in the alveoli, allowing the lungs to expand. The substance in the fluid lining the alveoli that prevents their collapse

exhalation

the phase of pulmoary ventilations in which air is expelled from the alveoli

inhalation

is the active phase of breathing. the phase of pulmoary ventilations in which the diaphragm contracts

pleura

serous membrane around each lung.

alveoli

the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place

tidal volume

The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal, resting breath, typically about 500 mL.

compliance

ease with which the lungs and thorax can be expanded

vital capacity

The maximum volume of air that can be exhalated after maximum inspiration.

pariental pleura

is attached to the chest

visceral pleura

is attached to the lung surface

diffusion

the process by which oxygen moves from the blood into tissues

bicarbonate ion

Most importan buffer in human blood produced from carbon dioxide

hemoglobin

the substance that carries most of the oxygen in the blood

carbon dioxide

the gas that is more concentrated in the blood than in metabolically active tissues

hydrogen ion

an ion that renders blood more acidic

10%

the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma

75%

the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide transported in the form of bicarbonate

15%

the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide carried on plasma proteins

brainsteam

the location of the central chemeoreceptors

hipercapnia

a rise in the blood carbon dioxide concentration

aortic arch

the location of a peripheral chemoreceptors

phrenic nerve

the nerve that controls the diaphragm

hypoventilation

the breathing pattern that cause hypocapnia and resulting from respiratory obstruction

hyperventilation

the breathing pattern that cause hypercapnia

dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing

hyperpnea

an abnormal increase in the depth and rate of breathing

apnea

a temporary cessation of breathing

orthopnea

difficult breathing that is relieved by sitting upright

hypopnea

an abnormal decrease in the depth and rate of breathing

tachypnea

rapid breathing observed during exercise

external exchange of gases

carbon dioxid will diffuse out of the blood during the phase

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi

gas exchange occurs in the

connective

which of the following terms does not apply to the cells that line the conducting passages of the respiratory tract

more hydrogen ions in the blood

an increase in blood carbon dioxide levels would result in

the residual volume

the amount of air remanding in the lungs after a normal exhalation

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