When investigators and participants are unaware of treatment
Only participants are unaware of the treatment
Study participants who do not receive the new treatment
Prevents other factors aside from the new treatment from confounding the study results.
Used to avoid investigator bias when assigning patients to either the control group of treatment group.
Reduces the number of subjects by 50% by assigning the same patient to both the treatment and control group
Does not change current practices, only observes activities or results
Involves a change in care
Conducted in the future
looks back at records to analyze what has already happened
Criteria for enrollment
Institutional Review Board
Human studies that are interventional must be approved by ?
The number of new cases of a disease contracted or diagnosed in a given time period.
The number of individuals in a given population who have the disease or condition at a given time.
Provide an overview of the measurements from the study- example: mean or standard-deviation
Used to answer the study questions
Type I Error
Occurs when a conclusion appears to be true but may actually be false.
Type II Error
Occurs when a finding appears to show no effect when it may actually be present.
Variable for which any value within a range is possible. Example: Heart Rate, PaO2, Cardiac output
Variables for which only certain values are possible. Example: yes/no, categories of severity
Indicated whether associations exist.
Quantifies the strength of the association
Detailed description of an unusual, interesting case.
Compilation of several cases to discuss a set of common signs or symptoms to descrive a syndrome or to further characterize cases or a treatment.
Case control studies
Often retrospective, involve the accumulation of a new number of disease cases to be compared with controls.
Cross sectional studies
Studies of a sampling from the population at a given point in time.
Attempt to answer an important questions by enrolling a large number of participants followed over a number of years.
Uses questionnaires or a set of questions to obtain results.
Randomized control trial
Type of study involving medical interventions in clinical care.