He lead an expedition, with help, from Missouri to CA. He stopped at Sutter's Fort and found work with John Sutter
How did John Bidwell make money?
Acquired a lot of land and raised cattle, wheat and other crops.
Who won a gold medal in Paris for his wheat product?
What happened when Captain John C. Fremont and his 60 man expedition arrived at Sutter's Fort?
Sutter was away, and Fremont felt that Bidwell was not friendly and did not help them enough.
What did Fremont do after he left Sutter's Fort?
He angered Mexican authorities and then went to Oregon for a few months.
What did Fremont do when he returned to California?
He took over the Bear Flag Revolt.
Where was Mariano Vallejo held captive during the Bear Flag Revolt and Mexican-American War?
What role did John Sutter take on at Sutter's Fort?
He helped many expedition groups get settled in California.
Who made money prospecting gold, Sutter or Bidwell?
Who was Biddy Mason?
A slave with the Smith Family in the South.
How did Biddy gain her freedom?
When the Smith Family tried to leave California Biddy went to the law and wrote a petition for her freedom in California, a free state.
How did Biddy make money?
She saved all the money she made as a nurse and a mid-wife and bought land. Some she sold at a great profit, some land she built on and collected rent from her tenants.
How did Biddy get the nickname, Grandma Mason?
With her money, she helped start a church and helped the homeless.
What is November 16th known as in California?
Biddy Mason Day
Who was Louise Clapp?
She was a woman who lived in a gold mining town during the gold rush?
What did Louise Clapp leave behind of importance?
She wrote letters to her sister Molly who live in New England. The letters describe what life was like during the Gold Rush.
Where was John Sutter born?
Why did Sutter leave Switzerland to come to America?
Like many Europeans of the time, he viewed America as the land of opportunity.
When Sutter arrived in California what did he build?
What did Sutter consider to be the real wealth of California?
The land- crops such as wheat and grapes and cattle.
Who was the last Mexican Governor of California?
Where was Mariano Vallejo born?
How did Vallejo end up in Sonoma County?
He worked hard as a soldier and was promoted and given Petaluma rancho.
What was the tension between Sutter and Vallejo?
Vallejo did not like that Sutter was helping the settlers of the West get passports without Mexican authority.
Why was Vallejo taken as a prisoner to Sutter's Fort?
Because he worked for the Mexican Government and the Californians wanted their freedom from Mexico.
Name two trailblazers to the West
Beckwourth and Smith
Who was Juan Cabrillo?
A Portugese explorer in service to Spain.
What was Cabrillo's major contribution as an explorer?
He claimed California for Spain in 1542.
Who was Juan Crespi?
He was a Spanish explorer whom joined Portola on the mission to occupy and settle California with missions and forts.
Who was Gaspar de Portola?
He was a Spanish explorer and colonial governor. He lead the expedition to start the first missions and forts in California.
Who was James Cook?
An English explorer, navigator and cartographer in the 1700s.
What area did James Cook explore on his first voyage?
What country did James Cook claim for Britian on his first Voyage?
Cook became famous after his second voyage- why?
His charts of the southern Pacific Ocean were amazingly accurate.
What was Cook's mission on his third voyage?
To discover the famed Northwest passage.
On his third voyage Cook visited what set of Islands?
Hawaiian Islands, which he named Sandwich Islands.
Cook wanted to pass the Bering Land Straight- did he?
The Bering Land Straight proved to be impassable. What did Cook accomplish on the Northwest Coastline?
He charted most of the North American northwest coastline and determined the extent of Alaska
Who killed James Cook?
Who was Vitus Jonassen Bering?
A Danish navigator in the service of the Russian Navy.
What area did he discover?
Alaska and the Aleutian Islands.
Name two things that are named after Vitus Bering?
The Bering Straight, the Bering Sea, Bering Island, Bering Glacier and Bering Land Bridge.