APES midterm exam

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Ecology is the study of...

Relationships between organisms and their environment

An environmental sustainable society...

All of the answers

Most of the environmental problems we face are...

Increasing exponentially

What is globalization?

Worldwide integration of social, economic, and environmental change

Which of the following statements best illustrates the "tragedy of the commons"?

A factory pollutes a river as much as the low allows

Resources that are called nonrenewable...

Are capable of economic depletion

Pollution includes...

All of these

Point sources of pollution include all of the following except...

Runoff from cropland

Which of the following is not important in determining the damage produced by a pollutant?


Root causes of environmental problems include...

Rapid population growth

Pollution cleanup is considered a short-term solution if population and consumption levels grow without corresponding improvement in pollution control and technology.


Decreasing population growth in the developed countries will decrease resource consumption.


A resource such as solar energy that is renewed continuously is a(n) _______ resource.


A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support system for all living things is...


In general, cultural revolutions are characterized by

Improved standards of living

Hunter-gatherer environmental impacts were kept low by...

Giving nature time to recuperate after they moved on

Which of the following human-resources relationships does NOT characterize a shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies?

People used coal as the primary energy source

The Industrial Revolution is characterized by a shift from...

Farming employment to factory employment

The American settlers primarily viewed the continent as a(n)..

Hostile wilderness that needed to be conquered

Henry David Thoreau and George Perkins Marsh were...


A starting point in establishing the federal government's responsibility to protect public lands from unsustainable resources use was the...

Establishment of the first federal forest reserves and wildlife refuges

Theodore Roosevelt established the...

National Park System

The Sierra Club was developed by _______ in 1892.

John Muir

Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot were...

Scientific conservationists

All of the following environmental warnings occurred during the 1960s except...

The dinosaurs became extinct

The first school of Forestry in the US was in...

North Carolina

Which president appointed industrialist to key positions in the Department of the Interior, reduced budgets and staffs of conservation organizations, and reduced funding for research on the renewable energy source?


Which president established the EPA, signed the Clean Air Act, Endangered Species Act, and the Clean Water Act?


Which president appointed environmentalists and scientist to key positions in environmental and resource agencies and protected more public land than any other president?


Which president advocated relaxation of air and water standards?

Bush II


Is best described as a collection of facts found through using scientific methods

Which of the following statements does not describe the scientific enterprise?

Established scientific theories are not challenged and continue to hold true

Scientists try to reduce errors in their observations and measurements by...

All of these answers

Which of the following questions is a working scientist least likely to ask?

What is the meaning of life for humans?

Frontier science...

Often deals with untested models and hypothesis

Human events that affect the environment are generally characterized by...

Long delays between event and responses

The type of model most useful in helping us to predict the events in the environmental arena is a...

Mathematical model

Which of the following is an example of synergism?

The combined effects of alcohol and a depressant produce a greater effect that would be expected from adding their individual effects

Matter is anything that...

Has mass and volume

The atomic number is the number of...

Protons in an atom

Isotopes differ form each other by their numbers of...


Organic compounds include all of the following except

Carbon dioxide

Which complex compound is mismatched with its building block?

Chromosomes - proteins

Which of the following molecules might experience a mutation that could be passed from one generation to the next?


Energy can be formally defined as...

The ability to do work and transfer heat

Which of the following is an example of low-quality energy?

Heat in the ocean

All of the following statements can be concluded from the law of matter except...

We do not consume matter

Earth is essentially a closed system for...


All of the following are broken down by biological action except...

Lead and mercury

Which of the following comparisons of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are correct?

Nuclear fusion is harder to initiate than nuclear fission

Which of the following statements is the most logical way to cope with the problem of limitations imposed by the three basic physical laws governing matter?

Use and waste less energy and matter

Ecology is the study of how...

Organisms interact with each other and their nonliving environment

What is the goal of ecology?

To learn about connections in nature

The following choices list levels of organization of matter that claim the attention of ecologist. Which correctly lists these levels in sequence from narrower to broader focus?

1. organisms
2. populations
3. communities
4. ecosystem
5. ecosphere

A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time is called a


All of the following are characteristics of life forms EXCEPT...

Highly diffuse internal structure and organization

Biodiversity emerges from...

All of these answers

The thin, gaseous layer of air around the planet is called the...


All physical forms of water (solid, liquid, and gas) make up the...


Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the...


Ecosphere is the same as...


Life of individual organisms is maintained by...

Cycling of energy and flow of matter

When incoming solar radiation is converted to heat, it is LEAST likely to be trapped in the atmosphere by


Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation are called...


A transitional zone between two ecosystems is called a(n)...


All of the following are abiotic factors EXCEPT...


Which of the following statements is FALSE?

There is no such thing as too much fertilizer

All of the following factors have strong effects on terrestrial ecosystem EXCEPT...

Dissolved oxygen

All of the following are major causes of differences among aquatic ecosystems EXCEPT...



Can live without heterotrophs


Yields glucose and oxygen gas as products

All of the following are consumers EXCEPT...


The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the...


In the field, you observe a lion chase, kill, and eat a gazelle. A vulture pecks away at the left over meat scraps. Beetles attack the remaining fragments. Finally, bacteria complete the breakdown and recycling of the material. If you were to apply a general classification to the feeders, what would be the correct sequence?

1. carnivore
2. scavenger
3. detritus feeder
4. decomposer

If something is biodegradable, it...

Can be broken down by decomposers

Aerobic respiration requires...

Glucose and oxygen

Which of the following terms includes the others?

Biological diversity

Which of the following would be considered a tertiary consumer?


The ecological efficiency at each trophic level of a particular ecosystem is 20%. If the green plants of the ecosystem capture 100 units of energy, about ___ units of energy will be available to support herbivores and about ____ units of energy will be available to support carnivores.

20... 4

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Energy pyramids show hwy a larger human population can be supported if people eat grains rather than animals

Net primary productivity is...

The rate at which producers manufacture chemical energy through photosynthesis

Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest level of kilocalories per square meter per year?

Open ocean

Soil is a complex mixture of...

All of these answers

The surface litter horizon is described by the letter...


The ___ -horizon of a soil contains no organic material and is composed of parent material.


The A-horizon of soil is commonly referred to as...


Freshly fallen leaves, organic debris, and partially decomposed organic matter are indicative of the...

Surface litter

Leaching occurs when...

Water removes soluble soil and components

Humus is...

Partially decomposed organic matter

A soil sample of closely packed pebbles that is a mixture of minerals and low in hummus probably came from a...


Soil texture most directly determines...


If you were a farmer, which type of soil would you choose for your crops?


Alkaline soil can be neutralized or made more acid by adding...


Acidic soil can be partially neutralized by adding...


During acid deposition and infiltration, the replacement of some ions attached to mineral particles by hydrogen ions can result in...

Decreased soil fertility

The cycle MOST responsible for linking the other biogeochemical cycle is the...

Hydrologic cycle

Condensation nuclei form from all the following EXCEPT...

Carbon monoxide emitted from vehicles

Humans strongly affect the hydrologic cycle through all of the following EXCEPT...

Boiling water

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Water has a low heat of vaporization; that is, it evaporates

Humans are most likely to alter the earth's thermostat through their impact of the compound...

Carbon dioxide

Carbon is a major component of...

Organic compounds

Transfer of carbon between organisms depends primarily on...

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Of the following carbon-based compounds, which would have the slowest turnover rate?

Calcium carbonate shells

The two ways in which humans have most interfered with the carbon cycle are...

Burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush

Nitrogen is a major component of all the following EXCEPT...


Nitrogen fixation is accomplished by...


Ammonium ions are converted to nitrite ions and nitrate ions through the process of...


Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia through...


Nitrate is converted to nitrogen gas through the process of...


Which of the following statements about human alteration of the nitrogen cell is FALSE?

Eating protein put "dead ends" in the nitrogen cycle

Humans remove nitrogen from the soil by all of the following EXCEPT...

Applying organic fertilizers to agricultural land

When nitrogen is added to aquatic systems, it is LEAST likely to result in...

Immediate decrease in gross primary productivity

Which of the following is NOT one of the common phosphorus reservoirs in the ecosystem?


Phosphorus is used in the composition of all the following EXCEPT...


The major plant nutrients most likely to be a limiting factor is...


Humans add sulfur to the atmosphere by...

All of these answers

Earth's chemical cycles connect life of the present to life of the...

Present, past, and future

Which statement describes field research LEAST?

It is comparatively easy to set up controlled experiments

Which statement LEAST characterizes laboratory research?

It has been used to develop most of our knowledge about ecosystems

Ecosystem services include...

All of these answers

Natural ecosystems achieve sustainability through...

Use of one-way solar energy flow and efficient recycling of nutrients

Which of the following best describes biologists' current hypothesis about the production of the earth's atmospheric oxygen?

Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria produced atmospheric oxygen

Which of the following explains the origin of organic molecules on earth?

All of these

The most likely sequence for the biological evolution of life is...

1. anaerobic prokaryotes
2. aerobic prokaryotes
3. photosynthetic prokaryotes
4. eukaryotes
5. multicellular organisms

A change in the genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called...


The term that describes small genetic changes that a population within a species experience is...


The term used to describe the long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species is...


Mutations are...

A source of new genetic material

You are an evolutionary biologist studying a population of bats in the rainforest of Brazil. Most of the population posses moderate length wings, although some individuals have long wings and some individuals have short wings. Over the course of time, you notice that the frequency of moderate-length wings increases. You conclude that the most likely cause of the development is...

Stabilizing natural selection

When natural selection shifts allelic frequencies toward the extremes of a range of genetic expressions for a particular trait, an evolutionary biologist would credit...

Disruptive natural selection

An ecological niche includes all of the following except the...

Location where a species lives

Species belonging to different taxonomic groups may develop a resemblance resulting from adaptation to similar environments. This process is called...

Convergent evolution

Which of the following statements is false?

By definition, the fittest animals are the largest and strongest animals

Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by...

Changes in the weather

Biodiversity is believed to be the result of...

Speciation and extinction

Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relatively little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as...

A punctuated equilibrium hypothesis

Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as...

A gradualist model of evolution

Features of weather include all of the following except...

Ozone concentration

To make the best weather forecast possible, meterologists are most likely to rely on..

Field observations and computer models

Which term includes the others?

Weather extreme

Climate is the general pattern of weather over a period of at least...

30 years

Which of the following statements of case and effect are false?

The earth's rotation being faster under air at the poles causes the prevailing winds

During an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

Upwellings of cold, nutrient-rich water are suppressed

The term greenhouse effect describes...

The trapping of heat energy in the troposphere by certain gaseous molecules

All of the following are greenhouse gases except...

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


Is formed in the stratosphere through the interaction of infared radiation and molecular oxygen

The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is...


Climate and vegetation vary with...

Latitude and altitude

You are going on a scientific expedition from the equator to the North Pole. As you leave the coniferous forest behind, you anticipate next exploring...

Gases captured in the ice

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