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area of a circle

A=πr²

field of view

Part Of A Microscope: Diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking into a microscope

scale

Part Of A Microscope: The size of the drawing/slide compared to its size in real life

total magnification

Part Of A Microscope: The objective of the ocular lens times the objective being used

diaphragm

Part Of A Microscope: Regulates the amount of light that passes through

coarse focus

Part Of A Microscope: Lifts the stage up and down; Focuses image - turn a little focuses a lot

fine focus

Part Of A Microscope: Focuses image - turn alot focus a little

stage

Part Of A Microscope: Supports the slide

objective

Part Of A Microscope: The lens or combination of lenses that first receives the rays from the object and forms the image

nose piece

Part Of A Microscope: Allows you to change from one objective to another

arm

Part Of A Microscope: Holds the two parts of the microscope together. Used to carry - Connects top and bottom

body

Part Of A Microscope: Basic heart of the microscope without any type of stand (base) or illuminators; Includes the eyepiece and objective lenses but not the focusing block

base

Part Of A Microscope: Used to carry - supports microscopes

eye piece

Part Of A Microscope: Where you place your eye

ocular lens

Part Of A Microscope: Magnifies 10x - near your eye

purpose

includes background research summarize the reason for this experiment and one sentence hypothesis

procedure

numbered steps telling exactly how to conduct the experiment

materials

list of materials needed to conduct the experiment

conclusion

restates hypothesis and purpose, why or not data supports hypothesis, reliability of experiment, why the experiment is relevant to the scientific community

graphing

graph to visually demonstrate all results of the experiment

organelle

part inside of a cell

cytoplasm

holds the cell together, maintains right pH, water, and salt concentrations

ribosome

make proteins, located in cytoplasm or in ER, DNA tells what proteins to make

centriole

assist with cell division (mitosis)

nucleus

the brain of the cell, where the DNA is stored

nucleolus

makes ribosomes

lysosome

breaks down all cellular waste, recycling bin, has very low pH

mitochondria

energy supplier, makes energy, only organelle with two membranes

endoplasmic reticulum

transports things within the cell

golgi apparatus

transports things to other cells, packages proteins and other molecules for shipment across cell and outside of the cell

nuclear envelope

the double layer membrane that holds the nucleus

chloroplast

site of photosynthesis (turn sunlight and carbon into glucose)

vacuole

animals only, not in center, store fat

central vacuole

plant only, very large and usually in center of the cell, site of food storage (starch)

cell wall

plants only, extra layer of protection and support, does not replace cell membrane, made of cellulose

vesicle

packaging for proteins and other molecules

cell membrane

complex, dynamic, moving organelle; made up of phospholipid bilayer, proteins, and sugars

hypertonic

water moves out of a cell because the concentration inside is higher

hypotonic

water moves inside the cell because there is less concentration on the inside

isotonic

the concentration on the inside and the outside of the cell are equal

phospholipid bilayer

makes up outer part of cell membrane, almost nothing can get through

transport protein

protein that allows for molecule movement

diffusion

when very small molecules (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide) move from high to low concentration without any help

facilitated diffusion

when bigger molecules (like ions) move from high to low concentration using a transport protein

active transport

moving molecules from an area of low concentration to high, to do this you need energy and a transport protein

osmosis

water moves from high to low concentration

endocytosis

what happens if you need to move somethings and there is no transport protein: vesicle comes into the cell and molecule/protein is released into the cytoplasm

exocytosis

what happens if you need to move somethings and there is no transport protein: exiting the cell through a vesicle instead of a transport protein

ATP

adenosine tri phosphate; the molecule that can hold the most energy in its chemical bonds for your entire life

thylakoid

where chlorophyll is stored, located in the chloroplast

stroma

space in between granna

aerobic respiration

making ATP when oxygen is present

fermentation

emergency backup system to make ATP
Advantages: oxygen does not need to be present
Disadvantages: makes much less ATP and produces lactic acid (soreness in muscles) (Cori Cycle)

mitochondrial matrix

chambers where hydrogens are packed during active transport

chlorophyll

proteins embedded inside the membrane (plant cell only)

light dependent reaction

light is required; happens on thylakoid; requires water, light, and chlorophyll, breaks down water (hydrolysis)

light independent reaction

also called Calvin cycle; takes free hydrogen in the stroma and attaches them to carbon dioxide to make glucose

Calvin cycle

light independent reaction in photosynthesis

Krebs cycle

happens inside the mitochondria, pyruvate enters the mitochondria and turns into carbon dioxide
Entire Point of This Cycle: to release all hydrogen from pyruvate and into mitochondria in a non-toxic form

glycolysis

breaking down of glucose to get into mitochondria and to release some hydrogen; happens in the cytoplasm

pyruvate

broken down glucose after glycolysis

electron transport chain

takes place in the mitochondria in inner membrane, process uses active transport to pack several hydrogens into small compartments, protein (ATP synthetase) lets hydrogen out of the small compartment spins to attach phosphate to ADP
Entire Goal of Process: to turn ADP into ATP

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; instructions to make all proteins in the body; unique double helix molecular shape;

G1 (Growth 1)

Cell Cycle: cell stays here for the longest, this is when the cell performs its function

G2 (Growth 2)

Cell Cycle: shortest parts of a cell's life, cell proofreads new DNA

S (Synthesis)

Cell Cycle: DNA is copied

M (Mitosis)

Cell Cycle: one cell splits itself into two daughter cells

G0 (Growth 0)

Cell Cycle: cell stops reproducing and stays in G1 forever

Apoptosis

Cell finds somethings wrong with DNA and self destructs

P53

protein that live at G2/M checkpoint to double check that DNA is good before it sends it to mitosis

interphase

G1, S, G2; DNA duplicates, all organelles duplicate, cell grows and functions

prophase

first stage in mitosis; nuclear envelope disappears, chromatin condenses, centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell

metaphase

second stage in mitosis; chromosomes line up across cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres and centrioles (in animals) or cell wall (in plants)

anaphase

third stage of mitosis; duplicated chromosomes turn causing tension and splitting the chromosomes into unduplicated chromosome

telophase

last stage of mitosis; in animals: sides of cytoplasm start to pinch, nuclear envelope starts to reform, chromosomes start to unwind into chromatin; in plants: sides of cytoplasm start to pinch, new cell plate (cell wall) starts to form

chromosome

DNA that is closed, hard to read but easy to move

semi-conservative

saves half of the old DNA

p arm and q arm

top arm and bottom arm; arms double after synthesis
two of each arm are called sister chromatids

telomere

top point of p arm and bottom point of q arm

centromere

how the centriole latches onto the chromosome

chromatin

DNA that is open, easy to read and use

complementary

In DNA:
A-T & C-G

In RNA:
A-U
C-G
T-A

nucleotide

smallest functional piece of DNA; made up of phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose) (these two parts make up the backbone) and complementary nitrogen bases

Chargraff's Rule

Adenine only binds to Thymine
Cytosine only binds to Guanine

proteins

made of combinations of twenty different amino acids, almost unlimited number because of different combinations, differ in size/shape/function

central Dogma

protein making (transcription/translation)

transcription

one gene unzips, mRNA copies the gene replacing T's with U's, mRNA zips off of DNA, DNA rezips back into double helix

translation

mRNA strand moves to ribosome (made of rRNA), codon sticks to anti-codon, uses genetic code to determine which amino acids are needed to build proteins

codon

one part of mRNA

homoglous chromosomes

two chromosomes that have information for the same genes

allele

variety in a gene

dominant

characteristic is seen more often in a population

incomplete dominance

hetrozygous phenotype is a blend of the two alleles

co-dominance

when the hetrozygous looks spotted because both alleles are expressed at full strength

recessive

characteristic is seen less often in a population

phenotype

trait expressed by allele

genotype

two letters to represent the allele

tissue

group of cells that work together to perform the same function

organ

group of tissue

organ system

a group of organs working together to perform a certain task

circulatory system

system that pumps blood and gases through the body

heart

center of systemic system, pulmonary system, and coronary system

lung

where oxygen is stored, blood goes here to be reoxygenized

vein

the vessel that carries blood to the heart

artery

the vessel that carries blood away from the heart

capillary

the vessel takes gasses to cells

hemoglobin

protein on the red blood cell that transports oxygen and other gasses

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

Main Contribution: made improvements to the microscope, perfected it so it could be used for widespread scientific study
Fun Fact: Made first portable compound microscope

Robert Hooke

Main Contribution: Invented Cell Theory (All living things have cells, cells are the basic unit of life, all cells come from other cells)
Fun Fact: Largely unrecognized due to feud with Sir Isaac Newton

Gerty Cori

Main Contribution: Discovered the Cori Cycle (how to make ATP without oxygen)
Fun Fact: Won the Nobel Prize in Medication

Louis Pasteur

Main Contribution: father of microbiology, ended all beliefs of spontaneous generation using his Pasteur flask
Fun Fact: Received the Legion of Honour Award

Cornelius Van Neil

Main Contribution: discovered the basic photosynthetic equation
Fun Fact: first teacher of general microbiology in the US

Maurice Wilkins

Main Contribution: scientist who assisted Watson & Crick in the discovery of the double-helix shape

Watson and Crick

Main Contribution: scientist and grad student who were credited with the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA

Rosalind Franklin

Main Contribution: used X-ray crystallography to prove the double helix structure of DNA
Fun Fact: died at age 37 from ovarian cancer and received very little credit for her work until recently

Nettie Maria Stevens

Main Contribution: discovered the genes where gender determination occurred and proposed naming them X and Y
Fun Fact: Used meal worms in her experiment to determine gender genes

Gregor Mendel

Main Contribution: realized that some traits are dominant while other are recessive and wrote one of the most important scientific papers ever "Treatises on Plant Hybrids"
Fun Fact: grew over 28,000 pea plants to observe different traits

Reginald Punnet

Main Contribution: created the Punnet square - found a way to mathematically predict trait appearance in offspring
Fun Fact: first person in UK to teach genentics

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