system of law that is the same for all people, based on court decisions that have become accepted legal principles
How were nobles and the Church obstacles for monarchs who wanted more power?
Because nobles and the Church had as much- or more- power as the monarch. Their jealousy guarded their rights and privileges against any effort by rulers to increase royal authority.
How did William increase royal power in England?
He raised an army and won the backing of the pope. He them sailed across the English Channel. At the Battle of Hastings, William and his Norman knights triumphed over Harold. On Christmas Day 1066, William the Conqueror, as he was now called, assumed the crown of England.
What principles did the Magna Carta establish?
It asserted that the nobles had certain rights and made clear that the monarch must obey the law.
Why was the power of German emperors limited?
They had to control their vassals; they also had conflict with the popes over the appointment of Church officials.
How did conflicts between popes and emperors affect the Holy Roman Empire?
It remained fragmented into many feudal states
How did conflicts between popes and emperors affect Italy?
Faced centuries of upheaval. Popes turned to the French to overthrow Frederick's heirs. A local uprising against French rule in Sicily led to 200 years of chaos as French and Spanish rivals battled for power. The region that has once been a thriving center of culture was left in ruins.
How did Pope Innocent III assert the power of the Church?
He claimed supremacy over all other rulers. He excommunicated the king and placed his kingdom under interdict. He launched a brutal crusade against the Albigensians in southern France.
What advanced civilizations existed around the world at the time of the First Crusade?
Islam had given rise to a brilliant new civilization that stretched from Spain to India. Hindu and Buddhist traditions flourished. Indian mathematicians invented a number system. China had a strong central government and made advances in technology, inventing paper, printing, and gunpowder. In West Africa, the Soninke people were building the great trading empire of Ghana. In the Americas the Mayas had cleared rainforests and built cities and dominated by towering temples. Byzantine empire was generally prosperous and united. The Seljuk Turks invaded the Byzantine Empire.
Why did Europeans join the Crusades?
Because the Byzantine emperor Alexuis I urgently asked Pope Urban II for Christian knights to help his fight the Turks.
What were three results of the Crusades?
Economic expansion, increased power for monarchs, and the church.
How did Spain achieve political and religious unity?
Ferdinand and Isabella got married. They joined forces with townspeople against powerful nobles. Under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed a tradition of religious toleration; Isabella ended that policy of toleration. A Church court was set up to try people accused of heresy; Isabella launches a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims. The queen achieved religious unity. (at a high price)