Medical Terminology Chapter 8 Digestive System Terms

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Primary Terms from Chapter 8, Digestive system

upper GI tract

mouth, esophagus, stomach

lower GI tract

small and large intestines, rectum, anus

hard palate

bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucus membrane

rugae

irregular ridges or folds in the hard palate

soft palate

flexible posterior portion of the palate which closes off the nasal passage during swallowing

papillae

small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds.

sublingual

under the tongue

periodontium

the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth

gingiva

specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches and lines the cheeks (gums).

maxillary arch

upper jaw

mandibular arch

lower jaw

dentition

natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws.

incisors and canines

types of teeth also known as cuspids that are used for biting and tearing

premolars (bicuspids) and molars

types of teeth used for chewing and grinding

primary dentition

20 baby teeth that are lost during childhood and replaced by permanent teeth.

permanent dentition

32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime

edentulous

without teeth

occlusion

contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth

malocclusion

deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth

saliva

colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing

salivary glands

three pairs of saliva secreting glands called the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands

regurgitating

flow backward

cardiac sphincter/gastroesophageal sphincter

muscular ring which controls the flow of ingested food between the esophagus and stomach.

stomach

sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper, rounded part), the body, and antrum (lower part).

rugae

folds in the mucosa lining the stomach which produce gastric juices and mucus.

pylorus

narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine

pyloric sphincter

muscular ring that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum

small intestine

extends form the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. coiled, up to 20 feet long. Consists of three sections where food is digested and nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Made of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

large intestine

extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. Twice as wide but 1/4 as long as small intestine.waste products are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus

cecum

pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen, form the ileum to the beginning of the colon.

illeocecal sphincter

ringlike muscle that controls the flow from the ileum to the cecum

vermiform appendix

hangs from the lower portion of the cecum. consists of lymphoid tissue

Colon

longest portion of the large intestine divided into the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon

rectum

last 4 inches of the large intestine

anus

lower opening of the digestive tract through which waste flows, controlled by the internal and external anal sphincter

anorectal

anus and rectum as a single unit

Accessory digestive organs

organs that play a key role in the digestive system but are not part of the GI tract

Liver

organ located in the RUQ. Removes toxins from the blood and turns food into fuel and nutrients the body needs

hepatic

pertaining to the liver

glucose

"blood sugar" removed from the bloodstream by the liver and stored in the liver as glycogen.

Bilirubin

pigment produced by the liver as it destroys old red blood cells, removes toxins from the blood and manufactures some blood proteins. Released by the liver in bile

bile

aids in the digestion of fats, secreted by the liver. Travels to the gallbladder where it is concentrated and stored

biliary tree

channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine, including the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and the pancreatic duct

gallbladder

pear shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile for later use

cholecystic

pertaining to the gallbladder

pancreas

6 inch long oblong gland behind the stomach which produces and secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion and neutralize stomach acids and enzymes

pancreatic

pertaining to the pancreas

digestion

the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients the body can use

digestive enzymes

enzymes responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms for use by the body

nutrient

a substance that is necessary for the normal function of the body. Primary nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that are only needed in small amounts

metabolism

the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients. Consists of 2 parts, anabolism and catabolism

anabolism

building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

catabolism

breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide

absorption

the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

villi

finger like projection containing blood vessels and lacteals.

lacteals

specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb nutrients and transport them.

mastication

chewing

bolus

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

peristalsis

series of wave like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction

chyme

semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric spincter and into the small intestine

emulsificaiton

a process in which chyme is mixed with pancreatic juices and bile, breaking apart large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats

feces

stool

defecation

bowel movement

borborygmus

rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine

flatulence

flatus (passing gas)

aphthous ulcers

canker sores - common sores often associated with stress, certain foods or fever

cheilosis

crack-like sores at the corner of the mouth

herpes labialis

cold sores, fever blisters, caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1.

oral thrush

white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks caused by fungus

stomatomycosis

any disease of the mouth due to a fungus

stomatorrhagia

bleeding form any part of the mouth

trismus

any restriction to the opening of the mouth

xerostomia

dry mouth, inadequate saliva

cleft lip

birth defect win which there is a groove of the lip running upward to the nose

cleft palate

failure of the palate to close during early development of the fetus. can involve the upper lip, hard palate and or soft palate. usually corrected surgically to prevent difficulties eating and speaking

necrotizing

ongoing tissue death

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth, can cause severe inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and death of gum tissue

bruxism

involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth usually occurring during sleep

dental calculus

tartar, dental plaque that has hardened on the teeth

dental caries

tooth decay/cavity

dental plaque

causes dental caries and disease

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

halitosis

bad breath

periodontal disease

periodontitis, inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth

temporomandibular disorder

complex symptoms related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint, IE pain, headache difficulty chewing

dysphagia

difficulyt swallowing

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GERD, upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

reflux

backward flow

pyrosis

heartburn

esophageal varices

enlarged and swollen veins of the lower esophagus which bleed as veins rupture

hiatal hernia

portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the mucous membrane in the stomach and intestines

gastrorrhea

excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach.

peptic ulcers

sores that affect mucous membranes of the digestive system can be caused by medications or h pylori bacteria. include gastric, duodenal and perforating

anorexia

loss of appetite

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder. voluntary starvation and excessive exercise cause the patient to become very thin

bulimia nervosa

frequent episodes of binge eating followed by self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives

cachexia

physical wasting

pica

abnormal craving for nonfood substances lasting for at least one month

dehydration

fluid loss exceeds fluid intake

malnutrition

lack of nutrients

malabsorption

small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food as it passes through

aerophagia

excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking

dyspepsia

indigestion

emesis

vomiting

eructication

burping

hematemesis

vomiting blood

hyperemesis

extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration

nausea

urge to vomit

regurgitation

the return of swallowed food into the mouth

colorectal carcinoma

colon canger

diverticulosis

small pouch or sac in the colon

diverticulitis

inflammation of one or more diverticuli in the colon

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestine

ileus

partial or complete blockage of the intestine

irritable bowel syndrome

spastic colon, condition that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea

inflammatory bowel disease

general name for diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines, ie ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

obstruction

partial or complete blockage in the intestine

adhesions

parts held together that normally should be separate

gangrene

tissue death d/t loss of circulation

perforation

hole through the wall of a structure

volvulus

twisting of the intestine onto itself

intussusception

telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the other

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin

strangulated hernia

occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off.

anal fissure

small crack like sore in the anus

bowel incontinence

the inability to control the excretion of feces

constipation

bowel movement fewer than 3 times per week

hemorrhoids

occur when a cluster of veins, muscles and tissues slip near or through the anal opening

melena

black, tarry stool - due to the presence of digested blood

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver. 5 viral varieties

hepatomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the liver

jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes d/t high amounts of bilirubin in the blood

cirrhosis

progressive, degenerative disease of the liver, often caused by excessive alcohol or viral hep B or C

ascites

abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

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