flexible posterior portion of the palate which closes off the nasal passage during swallowing
specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches and lines the cheeks (gums).
colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
three pairs of saliva secreting glands called the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands
cardiac sphincter/gastroesophageal sphincter
muscular ring which controls the flow of ingested food between the esophagus and stomach.
sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper, rounded part), the body, and antrum (lower part).
extends form the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. coiled, up to 20 feet long. Consists of three sections where food is digested and nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Made of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. Twice as wide but 1/4 as long as small intestine.waste products are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus
pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen, form the ileum to the beginning of the colon.
longest portion of the large intestine divided into the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon
lower opening of the digestive tract through which waste flows, controlled by the internal and external anal sphincter
Accessory digestive organs
organs that play a key role in the digestive system but are not part of the GI tract
organ located in the RUQ. Removes toxins from the blood and turns food into fuel and nutrients the body needs
"blood sugar" removed from the bloodstream by the liver and stored in the liver as glycogen.
pigment produced by the liver as it destroys old red blood cells, removes toxins from the blood and manufactures some blood proteins. Released by the liver in bile
aids in the digestion of fats, secreted by the liver. Travels to the gallbladder where it is concentrated and stored
channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine, including the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and the pancreatic duct
pear shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile for later use
6 inch long oblong gland behind the stomach which produces and secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion and neutralize stomach acids and enzymes
enzymes responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms for use by the body
a substance that is necessary for the normal function of the body. Primary nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that are only needed in small amounts
the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients. Consists of 2 parts, anabolism and catabolism
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric spincter and into the small intestine
a process in which chyme is mixed with pancreatic juices and bile, breaking apart large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats
failure of the palate to close during early development of the fetus. can involve the upper lip, hard palate and or soft palate. usually corrected surgically to prevent difficulties eating and speaking
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth, can cause severe inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and death of gum tissue
complex symptoms related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint, IE pain, headache difficulty chewing
portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm
sores that affect mucous membranes of the digestive system can be caused by medications or h pylori bacteria. include gastric, duodenal and perforating
eating disorder. voluntary starvation and excessive exercise cause the patient to become very thin
frequent episodes of binge eating followed by self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives
irritable bowel syndrome
spastic colon, condition that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea
inflammatory bowel disease
general name for diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines, ie ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off.
occur when a cluster of veins, muscles and tissues slip near or through the anal opening
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes d/t high amounts of bilirubin in the blood
progressive, degenerative disease of the liver, often caused by excessive alcohol or viral hep B or C