Tesluk et al., 1995
This study examined whether variables at individual, unit, and sub-organization levels influence the extent to which the knowledge and skills learned in employee involvement (EI) training are generalized beyond specific EI activities. Training generalization occurs when the knowledge and skills learned in training for a specific purpose in one context (e.g., EI training for use in quality circles) are applied by trainees in another context (e.g., regular job duties). A multiple-cross-level design using data gathered from 252 employees and supervisors drawn from 88 units across 11 sub-organizations provided support for both individual and situational effects. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated that characteristics at individual, unit, and sub-organization levels significantly predicted the extent EI knowledge, skills, and attitudes were generalized to the core job activities. As predicted, trainees were more likely to use EI training in performing core job activities the more EI activities they participated in, the greater their commitment to the organization, and the less cynical they were about the likelihood of positive organizational change. Contrary to expectations, more generalization of EI training was found to occur in units and sub-organizations with less participative climates.
Wagner et al., 1997
In this paper we classify 86 published studies of participation conducted in the U.S. according to whether they are based on cognitive or motivational conceptual frameworks, then conduct a meta-analysis of 124 correlation coefficients obtained from them to determine whether distinguishing between conceptual frameworks portends differences in the findings of U.S. research on the effects of participatory processes on performance and satisfaction. Results reveal noticeable differences in the findings of participation-satisfaction research, but also indicate that these differences diminish substantially upon elimination of research based on single-source self-reports. If interpreted as evidence of percept-percept inflation, these findings are wholly consistent with those of other recent analyses. If interpreted as evidence of the greater accuracy of self-report measures of intra-psychic phenomena, they suggest that research on the relationship between participation and satisfaction has been influenced by the conceptual frameworks used to design studies and formulate conclusions.
Vandenberg, Richardson & Eastman, 1999
Using a second-order latent variable approach with 3,570 participants across 49 organizations, the current study examined the impact of high involvement work processes upon organizational effectiveness. Using a structural model of higher order influences, and taking into consideration mixed-level effects, the analyses supported a model in which a collection of organizational practices positively influenced high involvement work processes. In turn, the high involvement processes influenced organizational effectiveness (defined through return on equity [ROE] and turnover) both directly and indirectly through positive influence on employee morale. The implications of these findings for expanding this perspective of high involvement are presented as well as issues needing immediate attention in the research literature.
Richardson et al., 2002
Recently, there has been increased interest in the organizational gains that can be achieved by decentralizing decision-making authority to lower level employees. Yet, literature examining the relationship of decentralization to organizational performance is both scarce and equivocal. The current study examines decentralization's influence on financial performance in a sample of behavioral healthcare treatment centers. As expected, the decentralization-financial performance relationship is moderated by key organizational characteristics. Implications of the findings are presented.
Riordan et al., 2005
This study empirically examines the relationship between the perceived employee involvement (EI) climate and organizational effectiveness. Using a sample of insurance companies, results indicate that organizations with high levels of perceived EI climate lead to organizational effectiveness as measured through financial performance, turnover rate, and workforce morale. Implications of the results for research and practice are discussed.
Richardson & Vandenberg, 2005
Employee involvement is an organizational phenomenon that has received increasing empirical attention. Although much research has examined the outcomes of involvement at the organization level, arguments can be made for exploring involvement at the work-unit level and for investigating the processes by which a unit-level climate of involvement may be created or emerge. Building on largely untested suggestions that such processes are likely to be motivational and initiated by employees' immediate supervisors, this paper incorporates two concepts of managerial perceptions and leadership into a work-unit level model of involvement climate. In particular, this study examines the indirect association of managerial perceptions about subordinates' ability to perform and about the utility of organizational practices for facilitating performance, as well as the direct association of transformational leadership, with a climate of involvement. The association of involvement climate with citizenship, absenteeism, and voluntary turnover is also considered. Using structural equation modeling in a sample of 167 work units, results indicate that leadership fully mediates the relationship between managers' perceptions about their subordinates and climate. Further, climate partially mediates and fully mediates the relationship between leadership and citizenship, and absenteeism, respectively. Implications for future research are discussed.
Evans & Davis, 2005
This study provides a theoretical framework illustrating how the internal social structure of the organization can mediate the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and organizational performance. HPWS positively influence the internal social structure by facilitating bridging network ties, generalized norms of reciprocity, shared mental models, role making, and organizational citizenship behavior. Although HPWS are conceptualized as a system of human resource (HR) practices, each category of HR practices has a differential relationship with the mediating variables. HPWS lead to (a) financial performance via administrative efficiency and (b) sustainable performance via flexibility arising from the coordination and exploitation of knowledge resources.
Chua & Iyengar, 2006
The provision of choice is one of the most common vehicles through which managers empower employees in organizations. Although past psychological and organizational research persuasively suggests that choice confers personal agency, and is thus intrinsically motivating, emerging research indicates that there could be potential pitfalls. In this chapter, we examine the various factors that could influence the effects of choice. Specifically, we examine individual-level factors such as the chooser's socioeconomic status and cultural background. We also examine situational factors such as the content of choice and the number of choices offered. We then expand our discussion on the effect of giving employees extensive choice by looking at its influence on creative performance. In the second half of this chapter, we discuss implications for future organizational behavior research and examine how emerging research on choice making can inform specific managerial practices.
Butts et al., 2009
This study sought to understand how high involvement work processes (HIWP) are processed at the employee level. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the authors tested and supported a model in which psychological empowerment mediated the effects of HIWP on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job stress. Furthermore, perceived organizational support (POS) was hypothesized to moderate the relationships between empowerment and these outcomes. With exception for the empowerment-job satisfaction association, support was found for our predictions. Future directions for research and the practical implications of our findings for both employees and organizations are discussed.