This is most of the significant literary terms in Basic English. I have converted the definitions into student-friendly words.

Flashback

When a story re-lives a previous moment, like a memory, a dream, or by simply revisiting .

Flash Forward

When a story jumps forward in time

Sequential Time

When the events in a story occur in the same order they happened in.

Time and Sequence

The way time works in a story

Literal Meaning

When the words mean exactly what they say

Figurative Meaning

When the words mean something other than what they say.

Denotation

Dictionary definition of any word

Connotation

Emotion of the word

Narration

A storytelling

Dialogue

When two people are talking.

Dramatic Monologue

Dramatic speech in a play

Protagonist

Main Character in a story

Antagonist

The Villain (sometimes not a person).

Soliliquy

Words spoken to God or to oneself in a story.

Credibility

Believability.

Rising Action

events that make the story more exciting.

Falling Action

events that solve leftover issues after the climax.

Climax

the most exciting part of the story, usually solves the big problems in the story.

Internal Conflict

When a Character is fighting against his/her hopes, fears, or ideas.

External Conflict

When a Character is fighting against something other than his feelings or thoughts

Active Voice

When the subject of a sentence is the actor, and not being acted upon.

Passive Voice

When the subject of a sentence is being acted upon.

Main Clause

The main part of a sentence that contains a subject and a verb.

Clause

Any group of words that contains a Subject and Verb.

Phrase

Any group of words that is missing either a Subject or a Verb.

Plain Diction

Using common, ordinary words.

Rich diction

Using unique words

Main Use of the Colon

To start a list

Main use of Semi-Colon

To separate long items in a list

Ellipsis

...

Use of Ellipsis

Used when words go on and on. "They argued the whole night ..."

Generalization

A conclusion about a group of things or people. For example, all people have legs.

PUN

a play on words

Nonfiction means

any story that is true

paradox

a statement that seems true and un-true at the same time

personification

when a nonhuman thing is talked about like it is human

hyperbole

extreme exaggeration

foil

a character who is so different than another that he shows off that other character's uniqueness

Iambic Pentameter

Anything written with ten syllables per line

GENRE

MEANS A TYPE OF WRITING

nonfiction genre

true stories

fiction genre

un-true stories, often short

poetry genre

poems

Drama genre

plays

Myth Genre

Traditional stories

idiom

any expression like, "It's raining cats and dogs."

free verse

poetry that does not have rhythm or rhyme

exposition

explanation

blank verse

unrhyming poetry that has ten syllables per line

epic poem

long story-poem about a hero

aside

when characters whisper onstage

Anecdote

short personal story

biography

story of someone's life, written by someone else

autobiography

story of someone's life written by that person in the story

Allusion

reference to something outside the story

internal conflict

conflict within a character (like cancer or regret or anger)

couplet

Two lines that rhyme with each other (usually a two-line paragraph in a poem, or a two-line stanza)

Haiku

Japanese poem with three lines and seventeen total syllables

Another way to say Imagery

language that appeals to the senses

DRAMATIC Irony

when the audience of a play knows something that the character will soon find out (and it becomes a surprise to the character)

SITUATIONAL Irony

a when an ironic situation happens in a story

VERBAL IRONY

when a character says one thing and really means something totally different

lyric poetry

poetry that does not tell a story but is only intended to express the speaker's (the writer's)emotions

Meter

a way of saying the rhythm of the syllables in any sentence

novel

a story written in everyday language that has more than 50,000 words

rhythm

like meter--the musical feel of syllables in a poem

1st Person Point of View

when the main character tells the story

Unreliable Narrator

when the narrator seems like he isn't telling the reader everything--often because he or she is an evil character himself (in the story)

Omniscient Narrator

when the story is told by someone who seems to know everyone's thoughts and problems

refrain

a repeated word or phrase or line (or group of lines) in a poem or song

sonnet

fourteen-line poem in Iambic Pentameter

Arthur Brooke

the writer of the story of Romeus and Julius--which inspired Shakespeare to write Romeo and Juliet

Julius Caesar

A play by Shakespere

Shakespeare

a 16th century British writer of many plays and sonnets--perhaps the most important writer the world has ever known

dialect

regional language

denouement

after the climax, when all the loose ends of the story are solved

chronological order

when things happen from the past to the present--in regular order

claim

an idea that someone tries to prove

coherent

when something makes sense

context clues

anything near the word or on the page that gives a clue to the word's meaning

argument

sentences that try to prove a claim

consumer documents

customer papers

evidence

things that help prove something

fallacious reasoning

bad thinking that does not make sense

paraphrasing

saying again in new words

MLA

Modern Language Association format--a way to make bibliographies

synthesizing

putting two or more things together

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