Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Jason Danner

Chapter 7

...

Arte della Lana

The Cloth Merchants' Guild which was in charge of the Opera del Duomo--literally, the "works of the Cathedral"--was determined to create a new set of doors for the north entrance.

Importance of Florence

Florence came under the sway (1382-1434) of the Albizzi family, bitter rivals of the Medici.

Cosimo de Medici

the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance

foreshortening

a technique used to suggest that forms are sharply receding

The angel in the upper right corner is represented in a more dynamic manner than in Brunelleschi's panel. This heavenly visitor seems to have rushed in form deep space.

Ghilberti

-an Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known for works in sculpture and metalworking.

-first became famous when he won the 1401 competition for the first set of bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral in Florence. Brunelleschi was the runner up. The original plan was for the doors to depict scenes from the Old Testament, and the trial piece was the sacrifice of Isaac. However, the plan was changed to depict scenes from the New Testament, instead.

-When his first set of twenty-eight panels was complete, Ghiberti was commissioned to produce a second set for another doorway in the church, this time with scenes from the Old Testament, as originally intended for his first set. Instead of twenty-eight scenes, he produced ten rectangular scenes in a completely different style. They were more naturalistic, with perspective and a greater idealization of the subject. Michelangelo dubbed these scenes the "Gates of Paradise." "The Gates of Paradise" is known to be a monument to the age of humanism.

Realistic figures in realistic space

Ghiberti meant to follow the lead of the ancient in creating relaistic figures in realistic space. As he wrote in his memoirs: "I strove to observe with all the scale and proportion, and to endeavor to imitate Nature..on the planes one sees the figures which are near appear larger, and those that are far off smaller, as reality shows.: Not only do the figures farther off appear smaller, they also decrease in their projection from the panel, so that the most most remote ones are in very shallow relief, hardly raised above the gilded bronze surface.

Ghiberti's panel embodies this growing desire in the Renaissance to reflect nature as accurately as possible.

Brunelleschi

During visits to Rome, Brunelleschi had carefully measured the proportions of ancient buildings, including the Colosseum, the Pantheon, the remains of the Baths of Caracalla, and the Domus Aurea (Golden Palace) of Nero. Using these studies, Brunelleschi produced the winning design for the dome of Florence Cathedral. The design guaranteed his reputation as one of the geniuses of Renaissance Florence, even in his own day.

casted each of his figures separately and then assembled them on the background. The process also resulted in a more unified panel. Disappointed BRUN left to Florence for Rome and gave up sculpture forever.

importance of the individual craftsman

The work of the individual craftsperson was replacing the collective efforts of the guild or workshop in decorating public space.

The Gates of Paradise - The Story of Adam and Eve, Meeting of Solomon and Sheba

Ghiberti worked on the north-side doors for the next 22 years, designing 28 panels in four vertical rows illustrating the New Testament (orignally the subject had been the HEBREW BIBLE, but the guild changed the program.)

THE STORY OF ADAM AND EVE
The influence of classical antiquity is clear in the portrayal of Eve, whose pose, at the center, derives from birth of Venus sculptures, and, on the right, from images of the Venus Oudiva, or "modest" Venus.
-The first panel, at the upper left of the doors, contains four episodes from the book of Genesis: The creation of Adam, at the bottom left; the Creation of Eve, in the center; the Temptation in the distance behind the Creation of Adam; and the Expulsion, at the bottom right. This portrayal of sequential events in the same frame harkens back to medieval art. Adam, in the lower left hand corner, resembles the recumbent god from the east pediment of the Partheonon, and Eve, in the right-hand corner, is a Venus of recognizably Hellenistic origin.
-This is where Ghiberti meant to follow the lead of the ancients in creating realistic figures in realistic space.

MEETING OF SOLOMAN AND SHEBA
The reunification of the Eastern and Westen churches, symbolically represented here, was announced on the steps of Florence Cathedral on July 9, 1439, with the Emperor of Byzantium present. The agreement was short-lived, and by 1472 the Eastern church had formally rejected the Florence accords.
-The only political significance of the bronze art he made.

Florence Cathedral

-Construction of the Duomo began in 1296 under the auspices of the Opera del Duomo, which was controlled by the Cloth Merchants' Guild.

-The Cathedral was planned as the most beautiful and grandest in all of Tuscany.

-Took 140+ years to complete

-Over the years, its deign and construction became a group activity as an event changing panel of architects prepared model after model of the church and its details were submitted to the Opera and either accepted or rejected.

Renaissance view of the physical universe

Copernican model

Scientific/Linear perspective

-No aspect of the Renaissance better embodies the spirit of invention evidenced by both Brunelleschi's dome and Dufay's music than scientific, or linear, and perspective, which allowed artists to translate three-dimensional space onto a two-dimensional surface, thereby satisfying the age's increasing taste for naturalistic representations of the physical world.

-It was the basis of what would later come to be called buon diegno "good deign" or "drawing"

Alhazen

discovered the laws of refraction. He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of light into its constituent colours

Vasari

Giogio Vasari, whose LIVES OF THE MOST EXCELLENT, ARCHITECTS, AND SCULPTORS is oen of our most important sources of information about Italian Renaissance art in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, defined it as follows: "Design is the imitation of the most beautiful thing sof nature in all figures whether painted or chiseled, and this requires a hand an genius to transfer everything which the eye sees, exactly and correctly, whether it be in darings, on paper panel , other surface, both in relief and sculpture."

Alberti

Brunelleschi's findings were codified in 1435 by the architect Leon Battista Alberti in his treatise on Painting.

-Painting, Alberti says, is an intellectual pursuit, dedicated to replicating nature as accurately as possible.
-A paintings composition should be based on the orderly arrangement of parts, which relies on rendering space in one-point perspective. HE provides step-by-step instructions for the creation of such space, and diagrams it as well. The basic principles of the system are these:
--1) All parallel lines in a visual field appear to converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon
--2) These parallel lines are realized on the picture plane-the two-dimensional surface of the panel of canvas, conceived as a window through which the viewer perceives the three-dimensional world-as diagonal lines called orthogonals
--3) Forms diminish in scale as they approach the vanishing point along these orthogonals
--4) The vanishing point is directly opposite the eye of the beholder, who stands at the vantage point, thus, metaphorically at least, placing the individual at the center of the visual field.

Masaccio, *The Tribute Money

Although Alberti dedicated ON PAINTING first and foremost to Brunelleschi, he also signled out several other Florentine artists. One of these was Masaccio, whoses masterpiece of naturalistic representation is THE TRIBUNE MONEY.
Commissioned by a member of the Brancacci family in the 1420s as part of a program to decorate the family's chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, it illustrates an event in the Gospel of Matthew.

Behind the central group Saint Peter finds the mone, and to the right he pays the tax

The function of the architecture appears to be to lead the viewer's eyes to Christ, identifying him as the most important figure in the work.

Vanishing point

is a point in a perspective drawing to which parallel lines not parallel to the image plane appear to converge.

Atmospheric perspective

gives the painting the feeling of naturalism.

This system depends on the observation that the haze in the atmosphere makes distant elements appear less distinct and blusih in color, even as the sky becomes paler as it approaches the horizon. As a result, the house and trees on the distant hills in this fresco are loosely sketched, as if we see them through a hazy filter of air.

Donatello's David

celebrates this Hebrew Bible hero's victory over the giant Goliath, indicates how completely the sculptor had absorbed classical tradition.

-The first life-size freestanding male nude sculpted since antiquity, it is revolutionary in other ways as well.

Marsilio Ficino

Cosimo, particularly impressed by this scolar, supported Ficino in his translations and interpretations of the works of Plato and later philosophers of Platonic thought.
-Following Plato's lead, Ficino argued that human reason belonged to the eternal dimension, as human achievement in mathematics and moral philosophy demonstrated, and that through human reason we can commune with the eternal sphere of being.

Platonic love

Marsilio Ficino coined this term to describe the ideal spiritual (never physical) relationship between two people, based on Plato's insistence on striving for and seeking out the good, the true, and the beautiful.

*The source of Fincino's thought is his study of the writings of Plotinus, a Greek scholar of Platonic thought who had studied Indian philosophy and who believed in the existence of an ineffable and transcendent One, from which emanated the rest of the universe as a series of lesser beings.

Neoplatonism

For Plotinus, human perfection was attainable in this world through philosophical meditation.

This philosophy (a modern usage) recast Platonic thought in contemporary terms. It appealed immensely to Cosimo. He could see everywhere in the great art and literature of antiquity the good, the true, and the beautiful he sought, and so he surrounded himself with art and literature, both contemporary and classical, and lavished them upon his city.

Pico della Mirandola

young philosopher who shared Lorenzo's deep interest in the search for the divine truth.

By age 23 in 1486, Pico had compiled a volume of some 900 theological and philosophical theses, 13 of which Pop Innocent VII considered heretical. When Pico refused to recant the 13, Innocent condemned all 900.

Pico's thinking was based on wide reading in Hebrew, Arabic, Latin, and Greek, and he believed that all intellectual endeavors shared the same purpose--to reveal divine truth. Pico proposed defending his work, in public debate in Rome, against any scholar who might dare to congront him, but the pope banned the debate and even imprrisoned him for a brief time in France, where he had fled.

Lorenzo offered Pico protection in Florence, defying the pontiff in a daring assertion of secular versus papal authority. As a result, Pico became an important contributor to Lorenzo's humanist court.

Oration on the Dignity of Man

the introduction to his proposed debate and one of the great manifestos of humanism- Pico argued that humanity was part of the "great chain of being" that stetches from God to angels, humans, animals, plants, minerals, and the most primal mateter.

an idea of perfection to which all creation tends.

Anthropocentrism

For Pico, the role of the philosopher in this anthropocentric ("human-centered") world is as "a creature of heaven and not of earth." This is because "unmindful of the body, withdrawn into the inner chambers of mind," the philosopher is part of "some higher divinity, clothed with human flesh."

It is imperative, therefore, in Pico's view, for individuals to seek out virtue and knowledge, even while knowing their capability of choosing a path of vice and ignorance.

Castiglione's Book of the Courtier

recalled conversations, probably imaginary, that took place in 1507 among a group of aristocrats at the Urbino court of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, the son of Federigo.

takes the form of a dialogue in whichi the eloquent courtiers at Urbino compete with each other to describe the perfect coutier - the man (or woman) whose education and deportment is best fashioned to serve the prince.

It was not published until 1528, but by 1600 it had been translated into five languages and reprinted in 57 editions.

a nostalgic reaction of Castiglione's nine years in the Urbino court, which he labeled "the very abode of joyfulness." It takes place on four successive evenings in the spring of 1507. The dialogue is in the form of a dislectic, as the viewpoints of some speakers are challenged and ridiculed by others.

The first two books debated the qualities of an ideal gentleman. The goal is to be a completely well-rounded perso, l'uomo universale. Above all, a courtier must be an accomplished solider, not only mastering the martial arts but demonstrating absolute bravery and total loyalty in war. His liberal education must include Latin and Greek, other modern languages such as French and Spanish (necessary for diplomacy), and study of the great italian poets and writers, such as Petrarch and Boccaccio, so that he might imitate their skill in his own verse and prose, both in Latin and in the vernacular. Above all, the courter must demonstrate a certain GRANZIA - "one universal rule"

Sprezzatura

"undervaluing" or "Setting a small price" on something.

For the courtier it means simply doing difficult things as if effortlessly and with an attitude of nonchalance. The ideal gentleman, in other words, is a construction of absolute artifice, a work of art in his own right who cuts una bella figura "a fine figure." that all will seek to emulate.

Leonardo da Vinci

(1452-1519) artist

arrived in Milan in 1482 as the emissary of Lorenzo de' Medici to present a silver lyre, perhaps made by Leonardo himself, to Ludovico Sforza. Ludovico was embroiled in military matters, and leonardo pronounced himself a military engineer, capable of constructing great "machines of war," including designs for a catapult and covered vehicles that resemble modern-day armored cars.
Leonardo's restless imagination, in fact, led him to the study of almost everything: natural phenomena like wind, storms, and the movement of water anatomy and physiology; physics and mechanics; music; mathematics; plants and animals; geology; and astronomy, to say nothing of painting and drawing,. Leonardo was a humanist, and as such was deeply swayed by Neoplatonic thought. He saw connections among all spheres of existence and wrote of them.

Leonardo was already known for his skill as a portait painter when he arrived in Milan, and his fascination with revealing the human personality in portraiture is nowhere more evident than in his Mona Lisa. Leonardo fuses his subject with the landscape behind her by means of light.

Sfumato

Leonardo fuses his subject with the landscape behind her by means of light. ("smokiness") Its hazy effects, which create a half-waking, dreamlike quality reminiscent of dusk, coudl only be achieved by building up color with many layers of transparent oil paint - a process called glazing.

The Last Supper

In 1495, Ludovico commissioned Leonardo to paint a monumental fesco of the LAst SUpper for the north wall of the refectory of the DOmincan monastery of Santa Maria delle Granzie. The intent was that at every meal the monks would contemplate Christ's last meal in a wall-size painting. The Last Supper illusonistically extends the refectory walls in perfect one-point perspective, carrying the present of architectural space into the past of the painting's space.

Psychological realism

What is unique abuot the Last Supper painting of an otherwise completely traidtional subject for a refectory is its psychological realism. We see this in the sense of agitated doubt and confusion among the apostles, their intertwined bodies twisting and turning as if drawn toward the self-contained and peaceful image of Christ.
The apostles, even Judas, are revealed in all their humanity, while Christ is composed in his compassion for them.

Vitruvius

according to this man - if the human head is one-eighth the total height of an idealized figure, then the human body itself fits into the ideal musical interval of the octave, the interval that gives the impression of duplicating the original note at a higher or lower pitch.

Michelangelo

In 508, Michelangelo was followed by Raphael, a young painter from Urbino who had arived in Florence in 1505. Julius set him the task of decorating the papal aprtments.

David

With the fall of Savaonarola, the signoria, Florence's governing body, quickly moved to assert the republic's survival in visual terms. It moved Donatello's David from the Medici palace to the Palazzo della Signoria, where the governing body met to conduct business. It also asked Michelangel to return to Florence in 1501 to work on a huge cracked block of marble that all other sculptors had abandoned in dismay. It was to be another freestanding statue of the biblical hero David, but Colossal in scale. Michelangelo rose to the challenge.
The completed figure, over 17 feet high -- even higher on its pedestal - intentionally references Donatello's boyish predecessor but then challenges it. Michelangelo represents David before, not after, his triumph, sublimely confident, ready to take on whatever challenge faces him, just as the republic itself felt ready to take on all comers. The nudity of the figure and the contrapposto stance are directly indebted to the Medici celebration of all things ancient Greek. Its sense of self-contained, even heroic individualism captures perfectly the humanist spirit. Michaelangelo's triumph over the complexity of the stone transformed it into an artwork that his contemporaries lauded for its almost unparalleled beaty. It was an achievement that Michaelangelo would soon equal, in another medium, in his work on the Sistine Chapel ceiling a the Vatican, in Rome.
The fate of David underscores the political and moral turbulence of the times. Each night, as workers installed the stature in the Piazza della Signoria, supporters of the exiled Medici hurled stones at it, understanding, correctly, that the stature was a symbol of the city's will to stand up to any and all tyrannnical rule, including that of the Medici themselves. Another group of citizens soon objected to the statue's nudity, and before it was even installed in place, a skirt of copper leaves was prepared to spare the general public any possible offense. The skirt is long gone, but it sumboloizes the conflicts of the era, even as the sculpture itself can be thought of as truly inaugurating the High Renaissance.

Sistine Chapel ceiling

But it is Michelangelo's work on the Sistine Chapel in Rome that remains one of the era's crowning achievements.

Julius II and the sale of indulgences

Just as the construction of the New Saint PEter's was about to get under way, Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to design his tomb. It would be a three-stored monument, over 23 feet wide and 35 feet high, and it represents Michelangelo's first foray into architecture. For the next 40 years, Michelangelo would work sporadically on the tomb, but from the beginning he was continually interrupted, most notably in 1506when Julius himself commanded the artist to paint the 45- by 128-foot ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, named after Sixtus IV, Julius's uncle, who had commissioned its construction in 1473.
Ever since its completion the chapel has served as the meeting place of the conclave of cardinals during the election of new popes. Michelangelo at first refused Julius's commission, but by 1508 he reconsidered, signed the contract, and began the task.

Raphael

The young painter Raphel arrived in Rome as Michelangelo wa sbeginning work on he Sistine ceiling and quickly secured a comission from Julius II to paint the pope's private rooms in the Vatican Palace. The first of these rooms was the so-called Stanze della Segnatura.

The School of Athens

also known as Philosophy

is generally acknowledged as the most important of Raphael's four paintings for the Stanza della Segnatura of the Catican Palace in Rome. Its classicism is clealy indicated in several ways: by its illusionistic architectural setting, based on ancient Roman baths; by its emphatic one-point perspective, which directs viewer attention to the two central figures, Plato and Aristotle, fathers of philosophy; and by its subject matter, the philosophical foundation of the Renaissance humanistic enterprise.

Machiavelli

If Josquin des Prez represents the inventiveness of the Renaisance individual to remake musical tradition, the political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli represents the individual's capacity to ignore tradition altogether and follow the dictates of pragmatic self-interest. Machiavellli's treaties The Prince is part of a long tradition of literature giving advice to rulers that stretches back to the Middle AGes. But MAchiavelli's revolutionary political pragmatism sets the work apart. Humanist education had been founded on the principle that it alone prepared people for a life of virtuous action. Machiavelli's Prince challenged that assumption.

The Prince

Humanist education had been founded on the principle that it alone prepared people for a life of virtuous action. Machiavelli's Prince challenged that assumption. Machiavelli had served the Florentine city state for years, assuming the post of second chancellor of the Republic in 1498.

Machiavelli was wrongfully accused of involvement in a plot to overthrow the new heads of state, imprisoned, tortured, and finally exiled permanently to a country home in the hills above Florence. It is here, beginning in 1513, that he wrote The Prince. Although widely circulated, The Prince was too much at odds with the norms of Christian morality to be well received in the sixteenth century. Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was more often condemned than praised, particularly because it appeared to be a dense of absolute monarchy. Today we value The Prince as a pioneering text in political science. As an essay on political power, it provides a rationalization for political expediency and duplicity that society has all too often witnessed in modern political history.

ethical pragmatism

From Machiavelli's point of view, humans are "fickle", "dishonest", "simple", and, as he says here, all in all a "sorry breed." The state must be governed, therefore, by a morality different than that governing the individual. Such moral and ethical pragmatism was wholly at odds with the teachings of the Church. In 1512, Pope Julius II's troops overran the Florentine republic, restored the Medici to power in Forence, and dismissed Machiavelli from his post as second chancellor.

political realism

Today we value The Prince as a pioneering text in political science. As an essay on political power, it provides a rationalization for political expediency and duplicity that society has all too often witnessed in modern political history.

The High Renaissance in Venice

In a mid-fifteenth-century painting by Vittore Carpaccio of Saint MArk's lion symbol of the Cenetian Republic, and lion stands with its front paws on land and its rear paws on the sea, symbolizing the importance of both elements to the city. In the sixth or seventh century, invading Lombards from the north had forced the local populations of the Po river delta to flee to the swampy lagoon islands that would later become the city of Venice. Ever since, trade had been the lifeblood of Venice.
Venice considered itself blessed by Saint Mark, whose relics resided in the cathedral of Saint Mark's. Protected by its patron saint, the city could prosper in pace.
Peace, prosperity, and unity of purpose were the city's greatest assets - and the citizens of Venice believed, above all, in those principles.

Titian

Located in a gallery in Florence

Titian's technique contributes significantly to the power of the painting. Although not visible in reproduction, the nude's skin is built up of layers of semitransparent ellow-whites and pinks that contrast to the cooler bluish whites of the bedsheets. Behind her, the almost black panel and curtain further contrast with the luminous light on her body.

Giorgione's Pastoral Concert, sometimes attributed to Titian, who early in his career often collaborated with Giorgione, offers a different picture of love. Here men and owmen sit together in a country side setting. The men are fully clothed, one in the costume of a Venetian nobleman, the other barefoot and in peasant garb; te women are nude. A shepherd passes by in the near distance with his flock.

Giorgione

The mysterious qualities of LEonardo's highly charged atmospheric paintings like the Mona Lisa are fully realized in Giorgione's Tempest. The first known mention of the painting dates from 1530, when the painting surfaced in the collection of a Venetian patrician. We know almost nothing else about it, which contributes to its mystery.

Giorgione evidently began work on his paintings without preliminary drawings, and X-ray examination of this one reveals that in the young man's place there originally stood a second young woman stepping into the pool between the two figures. At the time that the work surfaced in a wealthy Venetian's collection in 1530, it was described simply as a small landscape with a solider and a gypsy. It seems to have satisfied the Venetian's collection in 1530, it was described simply as a small and escape with a solider and a gypsy. It seems to have satisfied the Venetian's collection in 1530, it was described simply as a small and escape with a solider and a gypsy.
Giorgione didn't make preliminary drawings for his paintings, which led Vasari, in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Archtects, and SCulptors, to charge that he simply hiding his inability to draw well beneath a virtuoso display of surface color and light.

Palladio

Andrea Palladio Villa La Rotunda, located just outside the city of Cinvenza, set the standard for the country villa. As in so much Cenetian architecture, the house looks outward, toward the light of the countryside, rather than inward to the shadow of a courtyard. It is situated on the crest of a hill. on each of its four sides Palladio has placed a pedimented loggia, approached by a broad staircase, designed to take advantage of the view.
Build in the 1560s for a humanist churchman, the centralized plan of Villa Rotonda recalls Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. Palladio was, in fact, a careful student of Vitrius, as was Leonardo.
Palladio built many villas in the civility of Venice.

Each of them is interesting in a different way, and they constitute an important body of High Renaissance architecture that influenced architects in many countries and later centuries down to our own day. Over three hundred years after Palladio's death, thomas Jefferson would model his own country estate at Monticello after Palladio's example.

Palladio's use of elemental geometric forms-circle cube, and sphere- a sense of order and harmony that seemed, from his point of view, ideal for the architecture of his new American republic.

CHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 8

Importance of Bruges

Bruges has a significant economic importance thanks to its port. At one time, it was the "chief commercial city" of the world.

Commercialization of Art

The corporation of Imagemakers produced for sale many small decotional panels, private prayer books, portaits, and town views. Each May the city of Bruges sponsored a great fair, where painters, goldsmiths, booksellers, and jewelers displayed their wares in over 180 rented stalls on the grounds of a Franciscan cloister. Especially popular, because they were relatively inexpensive, were oil paintings.

Robert Campin - Mérode Altarpiece

The growing influence of the merchant class pervades the Merode Altarpiece, painted by the so-called Master of Flemalle. His real name, say many scholars, was Robert Campin. Campin was a member of the painters' guuild and the city council in Tournai. Since the Middle Ages, this city near the southern border of Flanders was known for metalwork, jewelry, and archtectural sculpture. We know little about Campin's life, but we do know tha the Tournai city fathers condemned him for leading a dissolute life with his mistress. his punishment was reduced, but the story shows the moral seriousness of Northern European culture in the fifteenth century, a seriousness that would grow even grater during the later Protestant Reformation.
The Merode Altarpiece is a three-part work, or triptych. The left-hand panel depicts the altarpiece's patrons, Ingelbrecht of Mechlin and his wife, kneeling. They are ordinary people , though a little wealthier than most, and their family coasts-of-arms decoarte the top windows in the center panel. Here, in the living room of a middle-class Flemish home, the magic of the Annunication takes place. Mary sits on the footrest of a wooden settee before the firstplace, intently reading a book.

The luminosity of oil paint

Oil offers other advantages as a painting medium. It dries much more slowly than tempera, and the drying process can be further slowed by adding turpentine. Slow-drying paint allows artists to blend the colors in minute amounts, creating subtle modulations of tone that suggest a sense of light falling across an object.
Furthermore, using oil paint, the artist can work with extremely soft, fine brushes, eliminating any hint of brushstrokes. The smooth finish that results heightens the illusion that the viewer is looking at the object itself. Implicit in the Flemish artist's sensitivity to the light-enhancing qualities of the oil medium is the understanding that light suggests spiritual truth.

glazing

Light seems to emanate from within Campin's canvas. Gabriel's wings glow, an effect created by layering very thin, almost transparent coats of oil paint on the surface of the painting - a process known as glazing.

The wings literally contain light, lending the archangel a physical presence and material reality. The spiritual is made real.

Hieronymus Bosch - Garden of Earthly Delights

-born, lived, and worked in the town of 's-Hertogenbosch. The town owed its prosperity to wool and cloth. Bosch is a contemporary of the painters in Southern Europe who worked in the so-called High Renaisance. Such a distiction seems inappropriate in the North, where there was greater continuity between fifteenth-and sixteenth-century art.

-Bosch's paintings are at once minutely detailed and brutally imaginative, casting a dark, satiric shadow over the materialistic concerns of his northern predecessors.

-Northern pessimism manifests itself most dramatically in Bosch's most ambitious painting, a triptych with closing doors known as the Garden of Earthly Delights, pained around 1505-1510. Although the painting tes the form of a triptych altar piece, it was never intended for a religious setting.

-The Garden of Earthly Delights hung in a palace in Brussels, where invading Spanish troops seized it in 1568 and took it to Madrid, where it remains.

-Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights is full of strange hybrid organisms, part plant, sometimes part mechanical contraption. In the left panel of the triptych we see the Garden of Eden, populated with such strange creatures as albino giraffes and elephants, unicorns, and flying fish. In the right panel we see bosch's deeply disturbing vision of Hell, in which fire spits from the skyline and tortured sould are impaled on musical instruments or eaten alive by monsters.

Matthias Grünewald - Isenheim Altarpiece

The intensity of feeling and seriousness that we saw in the painting of bosch also appear in the work of Matthias Grunewald. Multi-talented, Grunewald served as architect, engineer, and painter to the court of the archbishops of Mainz.

-His most famous work is the so-called Isenheim Altarpiece, a monumentally large polyptych painted around 1510-1515 for the hospital of the Abbey of Saint Anthony, a facility in Isenheim dedicated to the treatment of people with skin diseases.

-The Crucifixion in the Isenheim Altarpiece is among the grimmest ever painted; Christ's flesh is ripped and torn by thorns, more startlingly realistic in its detail than any Crucifixion ever painted in the South.

Albrecht Dürer

represents a trend in German culture distinct from the emotionalism and mysticism of Grunewald, one based on humanism. By his death in 1528, he had become one of the leading painters of the Renaissance, successfully wedding his German-Netherlandish Gothic heritage with the Renaissance interest in perspective, empirical observation,a dn rules of ideal beauty for representing the human figure.

-Durer's landscape studies, such as The Large Turf display his northern interest in the minutest details of nature but also his scientific mind, hishumanist interest in the phenomena of the natural world.

The Dratfsman Drawing a Reclining Nude from one of these treatises, is an example of Durer's attempt to marry the detailed textural vision of the northern tradition with teh scientific humanism of the south.

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam

Eramus was a monk and humanish scholar, but he had been raised in Rotterdam among the brothers of the Common Life. By his mid-thirties he had become one of Europe's most sought-after educators, and he was the first humanist scholar to take advantage of the printing press to disseminate his work.

In Praise of Folly

...

Martin Luther

...

Johann Tetzel

...

John Calvin

...

King Henry VIII

...

Thomas More - Utopia

...

Chorale

A hymn sung in the vernacular by the entire congregation.

Michel de Montaigne

...

Shakespeare

...

Globe Theatre

...

Henry V

Henry V is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to be written in approximately 1599. Its full titles are The Cronicle History of Henry the Fifth (in the First Quarto text) and The Life of Henry the Fifth (in the First Folio text). It tells the story of King Henry V of England, focusing on events immediately before and after the Battle of Agincourt (1415) during the Hundred Years' War.

Which artist was chosen to design the doors for the Baptistery in Florence?

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Masaccio was known for ____________.

perfecting the use of naturalism and perspective in painting

Which family was most closely associated with Florentine humanism?

Medici

Baldassare Castiglione __________________.

describes the necessary accomplishments and education of court ladies and gentlemen

Which pope returned the papacy to Rome for good?

Martin V

Which architect was commissioned to build a new St. Peter's?

Donato Bramante

Michelangelo's subjects for the nine central panels of the Sistine ceiling come from which book of the Bible?

Genesis

Which of the following is not portrayed in Raphael's School of Athens?

Thales

Which of the following statements does Machiavelli make in The Prince?

It is better to be feared than loved.

What sort of building is the Ca d'Oro?

A private home

Which statement concerning Giorgione is correct?

None of the above statements is correct.

Which of the following was painted by Titian?

-Sacred and Profane Love
-The Venus of Urbino

Which Venetian woman was well known as both a courtesan and a poet?

Veronica Franco

Which statement concerning Madalena Casulana is correct?

She was the first professional woman composer to see her own compositions in print.

Who was the most popular composer of madrigals in sixteenth-century Venice?

Adrian Willaert

According to the ancient architectural historian Vitruvius, what were the two ideal shapes?

he circle and square

The fall of the Dominican friar __________ was followed by the restoration of the Florentine republic.

Savonarola

Leo X commissioned __________ to paint his portrait was well as serve as papal architect.

Raphael

In __________ structure, all voices elaborate on an existing melody.

paraphrase

__________ is a figure of speech in which a phrase can be understood in either of two ways.

double entendre

A __________ is a secular vocal composition for three or more voices.

madrigal

Which of the following scholars wrote The Autumn of the Middle Ages, which provides one of the most vivid portraits of late medieval life?

Johan Huizinga

The central panel of the Mérode Altarpiece depicts what Biblical event?

The Annunciation

The famous portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his wife was painted by whom?

Jan van Eyck

Which Northern painter specialized in grotesque and controversial representations of humanity?

Hieronymus Bosch

Which of the following is Matthias Grünewald's greatest work?

The Isenheim Altarpiece

Which statement concerning Albrecht Dürer is correct?

He painted in watercolor and oil.

This member of the Brothers of the Common Life criticized abuses in the Church but remained faithful to it his entire life.

Desiderius Erasmus

Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses were directed against which practice?

The sale of indulgences

Luther's most famous musical composition, Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, is an example of what genre?

Chorale

Which statement concerning the Peasant War of 1524-1526 is correct?

Martin Luther condemned the peasant uprising.

Which statement concerning John Calvin is correct?

He wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion

Who was the author of In Praise of Folly?

Desiderius Erasmus

Which statement concerning Utopia is correct?

The plot concerns a mythical island nation in the Western Hemisphere.

What was the first permanent theater in England?

The Theater of Shoreditch

Many of Shakespeare's leading roles were written for which actor?

Richard Burbage

Which statement concerning Hamlet is correct?

-Hamlet is plagued by indecision.

-It uses the convention of "the play within the play."

-It is a revenge play.

A __________ is a three-paneled hinged painting.

triptych

Ulrich Zwingli led the Protestant Reformation in the city of __________.

Zürich

The French word __________ means "try out" and became the name of a new literary genre.

essai

In __________ harmony, voices move together in chords.

homophonic

The term __________ refers to Elizabethan theatergoers who paid one penny for admission and stood throughout the performance.

groundlings

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set