English inventor of the spinning jenny (1720-1778)
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. (604)
English engineer who built the first railway locomotive (1771-1833)
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
This man revolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
division of labor
the breaking down of a job into separate, smaller tasks to be performed individually
the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
term economists use to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
free market capitalism
an economic and political system characterized by a free market for goods and services and private control of production and consumption
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Explain why and how Great Britain was the first nation to industrialize
Britain became the first nation to industrialize by using animals and machines to do more tabor than human hands this produce boosted the economy
Describe the typical work experience for an Industrial worker. What is a sweatshop? Using example from our study, explain some of the dangerous conditions Industrial workers were subjected to.
A sweatshop is a place that clothing is made and manufactured except that they were paid low wages and had very poor and dangerous conditions to work in. Ex: Locked into work area, oil was everywhere and was plentiful to keep a fire going when it started, had insufficient methods to put out a fire due to have only three pails of water, employers locked the bathroom which lead to people defecating on working floors.
Explain how the concepts of mechanization, specialization, and the division of labor changed the nature of production. Why is Henry Ford considered the first Industrialist to perfect these ideas together?
Mechanization is the concept of when man lets some other form do the same labor he would an example would be an engine, water, an animal, like a horse or cow or bull. This producing the same product only without human intervention. Specialization is the concept for individual peoples to have different task to accomplish or make the same product, Ex: one person makes the wheel, one person fits the wheels in the wagon, one person makes the wagon and the product is done (wagon). Specialization is similar to the concept of division of labor because that concept is when each work has a specific duty in order to make one product in half the time. Henry Ford considered the first industrialist to perfect these ideas together because together this will boost mass production and efficiency of the company.
Describe the four themes of Adam Smith's book "The Wealth of Nations". What is a nation's source of wealth in the new Industrial era? In Smith's assessment of "The accumulation of capital", how does the unrestricted accumulation of capital benefit individuals, as well as the nation. In Smith's view, what is the role of government in this set-up?
a. The four themes are (1) that regulations on commerce are ill-founded and counter-productive (rules of trade), Mercantilism promoted the sale of domestic goods (remove government regulation and interference for the business (2) productive capacity rests on the division of labor and the accumulation of capital that makes it possible (how much a product can be created lies in the system) (create tasks specific jobs), (3) a country's future income depends upon capital accumulation, and (4) that this system is automatic. That means trade between people is pointless, how productive things are depend on the amount of time and money it takes, the future of the country depends upon how much money it makes, and this daily routine is automatic. The nation's source of wealth is productivity of the people.
Nation's source of wealth is in taxes and the accumulation of wealth by the labor of people. The unrestricted accumulation allows people to make more money without limit allowing for a better economy. the role of government is to not restrict and put a embargo on the trade between any nation or country. Also, to protect the people's property rights.