Vasco da Gama
Portuguese mariner; first European to reach India by sailing around the tip of Africa in 1498.
Italian navigator in the service of Aragon and Castile; sailed west to find a route to India and instead discovered the Americas in 1492.
Portuguese captain in Spanish service; began the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1519; died during voyage; allowed Spain to claim possession of the Philippines.
East India Companies
British, French, and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions.
Created by Europeans during the late 16th century; based on control of the seas; established an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products.
Interaction between Europe and the Americas; millions of Native Americans died of new diseases (smallpox) ; new world crops (potatoes, corn) spread to other world regions; European and Asian animals (horses, cattle) came to the Americas.
Naval battle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire resulting in Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims.
Nations, usually European, that profited from the world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services; exported manufactured goods and imported raw materials.
Dependent Economic Zones
Regions within the world economy that produced raw materials; dependent on European markets and shipping; tendency to build systems based on forced and cheap labor (ex. Brazil)
Vasco de Balboa
Began first Spanish settlement on Mesoamerican mainland in 1509. (modern Panama)
French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down into the Mississippi River valley system. (including Quebec)
British colonies in North America along Atlantic coast from New England to Georgia.
Treaty of Paris
Concluded in 1763 after the Seven Years War; Britain gained New France and ended France's importance in India.
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to provide a coastal station for Dutch ships traveling to and from the East Indies; settlers expanded and fought with Bantu and other Africans.
Dutch and other European settlers in Cape Colony before 19th-century British occupation; later called Afrikaners.
British East India Company headquarters in Bengal; captured in 1756 by Indians; later became administrative center for populous Bengal.
Seven Years War
Fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between 1756 and 1763; the first worldwide war. (UK wins)
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe; possession of colonies important way to control trade
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.
Led conquest of Inca Empire beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to Spanish.
English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through senses and reason and that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants. (life, liberty, and property were key rights of people)
English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
14th- and 15th-century intellectual and cultural movement in Europe that challenged medieval values and instigated the modern age.
Author of The Prince, a realistic discussion of seizing and maintaining power.
A focus on humanity as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor / the philosophy of the Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than in Italy
King of France; a Renaissance monarch; patron of the arts; imposed new controls on the Catholic church; ally of the Ottoman sultan against the Holy Roman emperor.
Introduced movable type to western Europe in the 15th century; greatly expanded the availability of printed materials.
Emerged in 15th century; involved later marriage age and a primary emphasis on the nuclear family.
German Catholic monk who initiated the Protestant Reformation; emphasized the primacy of faith in place of Catholic sacraments for gaining salvation; rejected papal authority.
General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; formally began with Martin Luther in 1517.
Form of Protestantism in England established by Henry VIII.
French Protestant who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group in Geneva
Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation; reformed and revived Catholic doctrine
Catholic religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work outside of Europe.
Edict of Nantes
1598 grant of tolerance in France to French Protestants
Thirty Years War
War from 1618 to 1648 between German Protestants and their allies against the Holy Roman emperor and Spain; caused great destruction.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; included religious and constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of a limited monarchy.
Class of people without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture, or urban poor
17th-century European violence reflecting uncertainties about religion and about resentment against the poor; especially affected women.
Process culminating in Europe during the 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; became a central focus of Western culture.
Polish monk and astronomer; discredited Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
Publicized Copernicus's findings; used the telescope to study moon and planets; added discoveries concerning the laws of gravity; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
English physician who demonstrated the circular movement of blood in animals and the function of the heart as a pump.
Philosopher who established the importance of the skeptical review of all received wisdom; argued that human wisdom could develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
English scientist; author of Principia Mathematica; drew various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion and defined forces of gravity.
A concept of God during the Scientific Revolution; the role of divinity was limited to setting natural laws in motion.
English philosopher who argued that people could learn everything through their senses and reason; argued that the power of government came from the people, not from the divine right of kings; people had the right to overthrow tyrants.
Concept of government developed during the rise of the nation-state in western Europe during the 17th century
Late 17th- and early 18th-century French king who personified absolute monarchy.
English political settlement of 1688 and 1689 that affirmed that parliament had basic sovereignty over the king.
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; argued for scientific advance, the application of scientific methods to study human society; believed that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Established new school of economic thought; argued that governments should avoid regulation of economies in favor of the free play of market forces.
Enlightenment English feminist thinker; argued that political rights should be extended to women.
Roman Catholic theological tenant for the remission of sins.
The belief that God has ordained all events to come including those who were to be saved
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Frederick The Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
Ivan III (the Great)
Prince of the duchy of Moscow; responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols; took the title of tsar.
Russia, with Moscow as its capital, claimed to be the successor of the Roman and Byzantine empires.
Ivan IV (the Terrible)
Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
The Russian Nobles
Peasant adventurers with agricultural and military skills recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia.
Times of Troubles
Early 17th-century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
Ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917.
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov; many were exiled to southern Russia or Siberia.
Peter I (The Great)
Tsar from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
Baltic city that was made the new capital of Russia by Peter I.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina; combined selective Enlightenment ideas with strong centralizing policies; converted the nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them new power over the peasantry.
Partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland.
Unsuccessful peasant rising led by Cossack Pugachev during the 1770s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18th century and after
Process in which traditional cultures come under the influence of Western culture.
Institution in which a peasant is attached to a feudal estate.