referring to a word multiple times in one argument but each time with a different meaning of that word; Example: "The sign said 'fine for parking here,' and since it was fine, I parked there."
Faulty/Hasty Generalization (jumping to conclusions)
Often a result of bias, prejudice, laziness, or sloppiness; Usually involves an inadequate sample that makes a generalization from something atypical or too small; Example: Reasoning with stereotypes like "All Asians are smart." or generalizing about an entire population with only two people
a crucial comparison on which the argument depends but includes two objects that in actuality are not alike (or different...depending on the situation); could really be done with any two objects but needs to make sense for a super strong argument; Example: "Guns are like hammers - they're both tools with metal parts that could be used to kill someone. And yet it would be ridiculous to restrict the purchase of hammer - so restrictions on purchasing guns are equally ridiculous." While guns and hammers do share certain features, these features (having metal parts, being tools, and being potentially useful for violence) are not the ones at stake in deciding whether to restrict guns. Rather, we restrict guns because they can easily be used to kill large numbers of people at a distance. This is a feature hammers do not share - it would be hard to kill a crowd with a hammer.
Begging the Question (circular reasoning)
arguments has no substantial reasoning and basically asks reader to just accept and agree with the conclusion; relies on a premise that says the same thing as the conclusion; Example: "If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law."
Ad Hominem Argument
"against the person;" rejection of an argument on the basis of a fact about the arguer (personal and irrelevant attack); 1. attack against a person's character, circumstances, and/or actions; 2. attack used as evidence against claim of person in question; fallacy that does not rely on truth or falsity of the claim in question; Example: Person A makes claim X. Person B makes an attack on person. A. Therefore A's claim is false.
Ad Populum Argument (bandwagon appeals)
"to the people;" arguer uses people's desire to be liked and makes the audience accept his or her claim; gain support for argument by convincing the audience to like it because everyone else (supposedly) does; Example: "Gay marriages are just immoral. 70% of Americans think so!"
The "Red Herring"
arguer uses an irrelevant tangent to divert the discussion from the original issue; "win" by leading attention away from the actual argument and topic that is at stake to another topic; often doesn't return to original topic; Example: "We admit that this measure is popular. But we also urge you to note that there are so many bond issues on this ballot that the whole thing is getting ridiculous."
arguer does not have legitimate qualifications to make reliable claims on a particular subject; using famous or respected sources or names to appeal to audience with supposed authority when arguer isn't really an expert; Example: I'm not a doctor, but I play one on the hit series "Bimbos and Studmuffins in the OR." You can take it form me that when you need a fast acting, effect and safe pain killer, there is nothing better than MorphiDope 2000. That is my considered medical opinion."
Post Hoc (attributing false causes)
"after this;" occurs when it is concluded that one event causes another simply because the propose cause occurred before the proposed effect; A caused B because A occurs before B, but there is not sufficient evident to actually support such a claim/argument; not necessarily related as cause and event; correlation isn't the same thing as causation; Example: Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend. Two days later she comes down with a fever. Joan concludes that the cat's scratch must be the cause of her illness.
Opposing a "straw man"
an arguer establishes a weak version of an opponent's position and attempts to gain advantage by knocking down the opponent's anticipated support; not impressive to knock down scarecrow (a.k.a watered down version of opponent's position); attack a distorted/exaggerated/misrepresented version of a position = not legit attack on the position itself; Example: "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that."
False Dilemma (either/or fallacy)
Either...or two claims are claimed to be true when when both could be false; One is claimed false, and the other is claimed true just because it can be inferred that one is true because the other is false; sets up so only two choices and eliminates one to make it seems like the other is theonly option when in reality there are actually many options; Doesn't apply to...Bill is dead, or he is alive. Bill is not dead. Therefore, Bill is alive.; Example: Senator Jill: "We'll have to cut education funding this year." Senator Bill: "Why?" Senator Jill: "Well, either we cut the social programs, or we live with a huge deficit and we can't live with the deficit."
arguer makes a claim and anticipates a chain reaction but not enough evidence to support that assumption; take one step and will end up sliding all the way to the bottom; series of steps or gradations between one event and the one in question and no reason is given as to why the intervening steps or gradations will simply be bypassed; Example: "We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!"