idea was inspired by puzzle like fit of continents
mantle material erupts where seafloor spreads
seafloor is recycled through a process known as subduction as well as seafloor spreading, mountains, rifts and earthquakes helping shape earth's surface
himalayas, san andreas fault
surface feature that is forming from a collision between plates, California plate boundary motion causes earthquakes
hawaiian islands have formed where plate is moving over volcanic _______
size rotation distance from sun
all of these things determine many of Earth's features
is there a reason for plate tectonics?
weight of overlying layers is less
why does pressure and density decrease with altitude?
earth's pressure at sea level
1.03 kg per sq meter, 14.7 lbs per sq in and 1 bar
where does an atmosphere end? small traces of gas are found _______
H2O CO2 CH5
surface would be a lot colder, atmospheric convection (weather)
how would earth be different with no greenhouse gases?
temp without greenhouse
venus 510C colder, earth 31C colder
atmosphere scatters blue light from sun
why is the sky blue?
these are red because red light scatters less
why are sunsets red?
earth is the only planet with a stratosphere because of ozone
which planet is the only planet with a stratosphere?
what protects us from suns UV light?
a layer of gas that surrounds a world
what is an atmosphere?
atmospheric molecules allow visible sunlight to warm a planet's surface but absorb infrared photons trapping the heat
how does greenhouse warm the planet?
they depend on how atmospheric gasses interact with sunlight at different altitudes
why do atmospheric properties vary with altitude?
This deflects north south winds into east west winds
______ breaks each of the two large no rotation cells into smaller cells
clouds and precipitation
water evaporates into atmosphere, convection takes water to cooler higher regions, water vapor condenses into droplets forming clouds, drops grow larger, and finally rain or snow fall to the surface
peak thermal velocity
the most common speed is?
true or false? most atoms do not have escape velocity
false, sometimes they do permanently
no atoms can escape into space
atmospheric heating and coriolis effect
what creates wind and weather?
brightening of the sun, changes in axis titlt, reflectivity, greenhouse
what causes long term climate change?
outgassing, sublimation evaporation impacts by particles
how does a planet gain atmospheric gases?
condensation chemical reactions large impacts, solar winds thermal escape
how does a planet loose atmospheric gases?