French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
..., Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
jean jacques rousseau
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland; believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society; ideas influenced the French Revolution (1712-1778)
one of the last major Enlightenment thinkers; stated that big philosophical questions could not be answered by reason alone; insisted that moral freedom could be achieved only by living in society and obeying its laws
One of the most famous salons was that of Madame Geoffrin, the unofficial godmother of the Encyclopedia. She gave generous financial aid and helped save their enterprise from collapse. Madame Geoffrin remained her own woman. The salons seemed to have functioned as informal schools where establish hostesses bonded with younger women and passed on skills to them. (p.613)
catherine the great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
joseph II austria
the most radical royal reformer; son and successor of Maria Theresa; introduced legal reforms & freedom of press; supported freedom of worship; abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
laws of planetary motion
Planets have eliptical orbits; a planets orbit gets faster the closer it is to the sun; there is a mathemetic equation for a planets distance from the sun and the time it takes to orbit
law of inertia
every body continues in its state of rest, or of motion in a straight line at constant speed, unless it is compelled to change that state by a net force exerted upon it. Also known as Newton's First Law.
German philosopher whose comprehensive and systematic work in the theory of knowledge, ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various school of Kantianism and Idealism.
any of a school of economists founded in the 18th century France and characterized chiefly by a belief that government policy shoudn't interfere with the operation of natural economic laws and that land is the source of all wealth. Generally regarded as the 1st scientific school of economics.
18th century French encyclopedia that was one of the chief works of the Philosophes, men dedicated to the advancement of science and secular thought and the new tolerance and open-mindedness of the Enlightenment.
The Social Contract
by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way in which to set up a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality.
A method of reasoning in which a number of specific facts or examples are used to make a generalization.
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case.
french mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher, and master of prose. He laid the foundation of the modern theory of probabilities, formulated what came to be known as Pascal's law of pressure, and propagated a religious doctrine that taught the experience of God through the heart rather than through reason.
British natural philosopher and theological writer, a preeminent figure of 17Th century intellectual culture. He was best known as a natural philosopher, particularly in the field of chemistry, but his scientific work covered many areas including hydrostatics, physics, medicine, earth sciences, natural history, and alchemy.
Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, British scientist and noble. She wrote a number of books on scientific matters, including Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy. This work was especially critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were the masters of nature.
The transition in Europe from a society where literacy consisted of patriarchal and communal reading of religious texts to a society where literacy was commonplace and reading material was broad and diverse.
word is derived from the french word rocaille, which denoted the shell-covered rock work that was used to decorate artificial grottoes.
Polish cleric(1473-1543) that believed the sun, rather than than the earth, was at the center of the universe. To prove this he developed a hypothesis known as the Copernican hypothesis, which had many scientific and religious implications.
One of Europe's leading astonomer in his time, due to his discovery of the new star of 1572, with his advanced observatory, aided by the king of Denmark and the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II. Believed the planets, except Earth, revolved around a sun and all the planets and suns revolved around the earth moon system.
Brahe's young assistant that took over Brahe's work. Developed three new laws of planetary motion.Published The New Astronomy,1609, which was monumental, because he proved himself mathematically.
Challenged the old ideas of motion. Created the experimental method, and through this he created the law of inerita. He applied the method to astronomy and developed a telescope and discovered the first four moons of Jupiter
Pope Urban VIII
A man sympathetic to the development of science, untill Galileo pushed science by publishing the Two Chief System of the World. As a result Galileo was imprisoned.
Physics genius that developed the law of universal gravitation. One of the most important figures in the history of science.
English politician and writer that used propaganda for the new experimental method
French philosopher who made his first great discovery in mathematics. He believed that all of reality could be reduced to mind and matter.
International Scientific Community
Due to the rise of modern science along with a rising social group the community was created. Members were linked by similar interests and values.
French huguenot who critacally examined religious beliefs and persecutions of the past and believed that human beliefs had been extremely varied and mistaken, and concluded that nothing can never be known.
One of the greatest philosophes, saw relations between man and women as highly representativen of the social and political system.
This was Descarte's view that all of reality can be reduced to mind and matter.
This was the era that changed European people on how they thought. This led them to find the truth through experiments and observations rather than religious beliefs.
A theory that calls for gathering evidence through observations and experiments rather than reason and speculation.
This is a way of thinking in which nothing was to be accepted on faith, and everything was to be submitted by reason.
This was a system of observing and experimenting to determine if something was true rather than believing what people (church) tell you.
They were social gatherings hosted by rich Parisian women in their homes where philosophes and their followers discussed literature, science, and philosophy. (A way of learning as in school)
This was having doubt or not really believing an idea. Skepticism was brought to a lot of philosophers one their new ideas.
Edict of Tolerance
It was made in 1782 by Joseph II and it repealed anti-Jewish legislation.
A form of rationalism that believes in God for reasons without the use of experimenting and observation.
(1724-1804) , he was a Professor in East Prussia who shared his views about human race. He believed there were four human races that came from "white brunette" people.