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Psychologists use the term ___ to refer to the pattern of enduring characteristics that lend stability and consistency to an individual's behavior and serve to differentiate one from another

personality

Early personality theories assumed that personality was expressed in people's physical appearance. What alternative correctly matches an early approach with a definition?

Physiognomy- personality is expressed in facial characteristics.

Phrenology

Personality is expressed in the shape of the skull.

Somatology

Personality is expressed in body type.

Physiognomy

Personality is expressed in facial characteristics.

Which early personality theorist is associated with the use of the terms endomorph and ectomorph?

Sheldon

Endomorph is to ectomorph as ___ is to ___

fat; thin

Which early approach to personality has enjoyed at least some empirical support?

Physiognomy

Relatively enduring characteristics that influence behavior in many situations are termed:

Traits

Self-esteem and self-consciousness are examples of personality:

Traits

___ act in ways to stand out from others. By contrast, ___ act in ways to emphasize their similarity to others.

Individualists; Collectivists

Belva invests a portion of her paycheck in high-risk stocks. She believes that an aggressive investment strategy will yield the highest returns in the long run. Mortie invests his money in more conservative government bonds to minimize his changes of losing money. Belva displays a ___. Mortie reflects a ___.

Promotion orientation; Prevention orientation

The ___ is the most widely administered personality test in the world.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The MBTI assesses each of the following 4 dimensions except:

Individualism vs Collectivism

Scores on the MBTI change over time and scores do not relate to other measures of personality. The clauses in this quotation question the MBTI's ___ and its ___ respectively.

Reliability; Validity

There are nearly ___ English words that can be used to describe people.

20,000

Which of the following is NOT among the early trait theorists mentioned in the text?

Sheldon

Which of the following describes the Five-Factor model dimension of "openness to experience"?

A general appreciation for art, adventure, and experience.

What describes the Five-Factor model dimension of "conscientiousness"?

A tendency to show discipline and aim for achievement.

What describes the Five-Factor model dimension of "extroversion"?

A tendency to experience positive emotions.

What describes the Five-Factor model dimension of "neuroticism"?

A tendency to experience negative emotions.

What are the sequences of Allport's trait categories from most specific to broadest?

Secondary --> Central --> Cardinal

An all-consuming need for power is sometimes known as Machiavellianism. Because the trait is named in his honor, it would be reasonable to suppose that the need for power was a ___ trait for the Italian prince.

Cardinal

A graduate student is using a statistical software package to identify the relationships among many personality traits and to isolate the basic dimensions. She is performing the ___ analysis.

Factor

___ trait is to source trait as Allport is to ___.

Central; Cattell

Which of the Big Five personality dimensions also appeared in Eysenck's theory?

Extraversion

What is the "Big Five"?

Five key personality factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism.

Which of the following specific traits is correctly paired with a description in terms of the Big Five dimensions?

Imaginative- High openness

Garner is imaginative, curious and interested in new ideas. Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimension of ___.

Extraversion

Peal is gentle, cooperative, trusting, and helpful. Ruby is outgoing, talkative, fun-loving, and affectionate. Pearl probably scores high on the Big Five dimension of ___ , where Ruby likely scores high on ___.

Agreeableness; Extraversion

Carlos is emtionialy unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody. Quinn is disorganized, spontaneous, and impulsive. Johann is quiet, serious, and somewhat timid. Finally, Kristy is imaginative, independent, and fond of variety. Which of these individuals is correctly matched with a Big Five personality description?

Quinn- Low Conscientiousness

The "Big Five" personality dimensions demonstrate:

Predictive validity, Cross-cultural generality, Clinical significance

According to your text, "a pattern of high conscientiousness, low neuroticism, and high agreeableness predicts successful job performance." This statement supports the ___.

Validity

With respect to the Big Five personality dimensions, presidential success is associated

Positively with openness and negatively with agreeableness.

Recall the discussion of theories in your text's research methods section. Model of personality is a good theory because it is:

Parsimonious

What describes the individual difference measure of authoritarianism?

Conventional, superstitious, and concerned with sex.

Which of the following describes the individual difference measure of "self-efficacy"?

Believing that one can control his own outcomes.

What describes the individual difference measure of self-consciousness?

Examining one's own self and feelings.

What describes the individual difference measure of need for cognition?

Enjoying thinking about things.

Research has found which of the following?

People overestimate traits in others.

Pam's self-esteem is healthy, and she has a definite need for achievement. With respect to the Big Five personality factors, Pam is most likely:

high in conscientiousness and low in neuroticism.

Which alternative correctly identifies an advantage or a disadvantage of the Big Five model of personality?

Advantage- the theory is parsimonious

Which of the following is most descriptive of research on traits?

The situation that people are in influences which traits they express.

Which correlation coefficient best reflects the relationship between the traits an individual displays in one situation and those she displays in other situations?

r= .30

Bernie faithfully sees a psychic when he faces a big decision or when he simply feels uncertain. He believes the prognostications of the "gifted advisor", even though the predictions are so vague that virtually anyone's experiences would confirm them. His example illustrates the ___ effect.

Barnum

Which psychologist is LEAST likely to endorse the view that behavior is determined largely by situations, rather than by internal traits?

Allport

Dr. Abbott is an industrial/organizational psychologist. She is examining the relationship among scores on certain MMPI-2 scales and measures of job satisfaction in a particular industry. Dr. Abbott's work exemplifies ___ research.

Correlational

The TAT and Rorschach are ___ tests of personality.

Projective

Inkblot is to picture as ___ is to ___.

Rorschach; TAT

Minnie is taking the TAT. Tammy is taking the Rorschach. Minnie is looking at ___. Tammy is examining ___.

Pictures; Inkblots

What are valid criticisms of projective tests of personality?

Projective tests are not valid, reliable, and do not tap in the unconscious.

Leadership

The ability to direct or inspire others.

Which of the following are 2 traits that have been used to describe effective leaders?

Charismatic and transformational

Dr. Ashworth believes that one's personality largely reflects internal, unconscious forces. Dr. Ashworth appears to take a ___ approach to personality.

Psychodynamic.

Which of the following psychologists is not aligned with the psychodynamic perspective on personality?

Eysenck

Why do dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer important data in the view of psychoanalytic psychologists?

Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer clues to the contents of the unconscious mind.

Very broadly, nature is to nurture as the ___ is to the ___ in Freud's theory of personality.

Id; Superego

Which alternative correctly pairs one of Freud's structures with a description?

Modus- balances sexual and aggressive desires

Id

Primitive, instinctual urges.

Superego

Morality and oughts.

Ego

The conscious controller of personality.

Which of Freud's personality structures is correctly matched with a descriptive term?

Id- pleasure principle

What do the id and the superego have in common?

They are both unrealistic.

Libido is to thanatos as ___ is to ___.

Sex; Aggression

Which component of the personality uses defense mechanisms and why?

The ego uses defense mechanisms to prevent excessive anxiety.

In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a:

Defense mechanism.

One of the most basic or fundamental of the defense mechanisms involves simply pushing anxiety-provoking thoughts into the unconscious. This mechanism is termed ___.

Repression

In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies whereas, on an unconscious level, she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as:

Reaction formation.

Regression

Retreating to an earlier, safer stage of development.

Projection

Unacceptable impulses are attributed to others.

Displacement

An impulse is redirected from the source of anxiety to a more acceptable source.

Sublimation

Unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable activities.

Repression

Anxiety-related thoughts are pushed into the unconscious

Which defense mechanism is correctly matched with a definition?

Displacement- An impulse is redirected from the source of anxiety to a more acceptable source.

In Freud's theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed:

Fixations.

What is the order of the first 3 stages in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, from first to last?

Oral --> Anal --> Phallic

Anal stage of psychosexual development.

Pleasure comes from bowel and bladder elimination.

Oral stage of psychosexual development.

Pleasure comes from sucking, biting, and chewing.

Phallic stage of psychosexual development.

Pleasure comes from genitals.

Genital stage of psychosexual development.

Mature sexual orientation is developed.

Which of the following stages of psychosexual development is correctly matched with a key task or term?

Oral-Weaning

According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development?

Phallic

Young children resolve the Oedipus and Electra conflicts by wanting to be as much like the same-sex parent as possible, a process termed ___.

Identification

Stephanie is gullible, dependent, and tends to overeat. Saul is rigid, organized, and stingy. Which alternative correctly matches each individual with the psychosexual stage at which he or she is fixated?

Stephanie-oral; Saul-anal

In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the:

Genital stage.

According to the text, how does neo-Freudian though differ from Freud's original theory?

The neo-Freudians placed less emphasis on sex than did Freud.

Which of the following is not one of the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts?

Cattell

Which neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorist is correctly matched with a key concept?

Jung; Archetypes

In positing the collective unconscious, Jung may be a seen as pursuing a goal similar to that of contemporary evolutionary psychologists. In what way?

He was attempting to explain phenomena universal across cultures.

Which of the psychodynamic psychologists contributed the phrases "penis envy" and "inferiority complex", respectively, to psychology?

Freud and Adler

Jung is to ___ as Horney is to ___.

Self-realization; Security

According to ___, we wish to escape from the freedom technology has given us and reconnect with other people.

Fromm

Which of the following Freudian notions appears to have been supported in sub sequential empirical research?

Unconscious processes contribute importantly to thought and behavior.

According to the text, Freud's theory has been criticized because:

It is not falsifiable.

Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of human nature- that humans are essentially "good"?

Humanistic

___ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective.

Maslow

Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-:

Actualization.

What is the order in which the needs in Maslow's pyramid must be fulfilled, from first to last?

Physiological and safety needs --> Love and belongingness --> Esteem --> Self-Actualization

Realizing one's potential to the fullest...

is the highest point of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

According to Maslow, a major prerequisite for becoming self-actualized is having:

All of one's lower-order needs fulfilled.

According to Maslow, our highest level need is the need for ___.

Self-Realization

Tory Higgins and his colleagues found that discrepancies between the actual self and the ideal self created ___ whereas discrepancies between the actual self and the ought self created ___.

Dejection; Agitation

Cells in the human body contain ___ chromosomes.

23 pairs of

Which sequence correctly orders the units of genetics, from the smallest and most specific to the largest and most inclusive?

DNA --> Gene --> Chromosome

___ are composed of ___, which in turn are made of ___.

Chromosomes; Genes; DNA

Approximately how many genes are in a human cell?

25,000

Behavioral geneticists:

Conduct family studies to examine the biological and environmental bases of traits and behaviors.

Dr. Schilling is investigating the potential genetic basis of antisocial personality disorder by examining the relative prevalence of the disorder among either identical or fraternal twins. Dr. Figueroa is investigating potential genetic markers of the disorder. Dr. Schilling is best described as a ___, Dr. Figueroa as a ___.

Behavioral geneticist; Molecular psychologist

Molecular geneticists investigate behavior at a ___ level of analysis than behavioral geneticists.

Lower

Dr. Ivanov conducts family and adoption studies. Dr. Jefferson conducts twin studies. Ivanov is a ___. Dr. Jefferson is a ___.

Behavioral geneticist; Behavioral geneticist as well

The genes of ___ are 100% identical, while those of ___ twins are 50% identical.

Monozygotic; Dizygotic

If one male identical twin is gay, the likelihood that the other is also gay is about 50%. In comparison, the likelihood that a gay male's fraternal twin is also gay is closer to 20%. How might a behavioral geneticist interpret these figures?

These figures indicate heritability, thereby suggesting a sizable genetic contribution to male homosexuality.

Suppose a researcher finds a correlation coefficient of .40 between identical twins' scores on a measure of a personality trait. She additionally finds a correlation coefficient of .40 between fraternal twins' scores on the same measure. What might she conclude regarding the genetic and environmental bases of the trait?

The trait reflects shared environmental factors because the 2 coefficients are moderate and similar.

Dr. Kellman finds a near 0 correlation between identical twins' scores on a measure of personality trait. Dr. Kellman will probably attribute variability in the trait to:

Nonshared environmental factors

The text reports that the correlation between identical twins' scores on aggression measures is about .43; the correlation between fraternal twins' scores on aggression measures is around .14. Most immediately, these coefficients indicate:

A sizable genetic contribution to aggression and a minimal role for shared environmental factors in aggression.

The text suggests that at most, the correlation coefficients for identical twins' scores on behavioral and personality measures are around:

.40-.50

While there appears to be a substantial genetic component to homosexuality, the text suggests that about ___% of the total influence on homosexuality reflects the environment. The environmental influence on homosexuality is best attributed to ___.

60%-80%; unknown factors

Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as an aspect of behavior for which genes have been identified among knockout mice?

Novelty-seeking

For which of the following have molecular geneticists found associated genes using human DNA?

ADHD, smoking, novelty-seeking

Is genetics destiny?

No. While genetics are important in behavior and personality, non-shared environmental factors are more influential.

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