U.S. History Vocab Terms

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Satellite State

A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.

Potsdam

the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender

Iron Curtain

a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region

Truman Doctrine

First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

George F. Keenan

American ambassador to the Soviet Union who proposed the policy of containment, American diplomat who stressed the need to contain communism within its current borders

Containment

a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

Marshall Plan

Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

Berlin Airlift

Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Jiang Jieshi

(nationalist) Succeeded Sun (1925) energetic army officer, received military training in Japan and wanted to smash warlords and reunite China. 1926- march into north china, crushed warlords and advanced, capital Beijing, mid campaign-> strikes communism (threat to his power) 1927- Guomindang slaughters comm. members, thousands killed in Shanghai

38th Parallel

line of latitude that separated North and South Korea

Douglas McArthur

commander in chief of US forces in the Pacific Theater of operations, Left the Philipines vowing "I shall return" during the Korean War, however, was fires for insubordination.

Inchon

a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; pop. 1,818,000. It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops in 1950 that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea.

Limited War

conflict in which the belligerents participating in the war do not expend all of each of the participants available resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

(DDE), A regional defense pact pulled together by Dulles to prevent the "fall" to communism of South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Arms Race

Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons

Mutual Assured Destruction Drinciple (MAD)

During the Kennedy administration, Secretary of State McNamara declared that massive retaliation was no longer effective because both sides could cause too much harm to each other, so this was the new nuclear policy

John Foster Dulles

United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)

Massive Retaliation

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.

Brinkmanship

the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)

Nikita Khruschev

communist, head of soviet union. condemned the excesses of the Stalinb regime and inched toward more peaceful relations with the democratic west.

Nationalize

put under state control or ownership

Suez Sanal Crises

...

Eisenhower Doctrine

Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.

CIA

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest

NASA

National Aeronautic and Space Administration - a US government agency in charge of the space program

Red Scare

a period of general fear of communists

Smith Act

...

HUAC

The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,

Hollywood Ten

Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood

Blacklist

list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired

Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

Julius & Ethel Rosenburg

convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union; only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage

Joseph R. McCarthy

Republican senator; held lists of communists serving secretly in government agencies; this information showed that the U.S. had already fallen prey to subversive influences

McCarthyism

The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

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