Protein around which DNA wraps; Helps maintain the shape of the chromosomes and aids in the tight packaging of DNA
Protein generally involved in controlling the activity of specific regions of the DNA
1/2 of the chromosome (is identical to the other half) and are formed when DNA copies itslef in preparation for mitosis
Constricted area of two chromatids; holds them together
Chromosomes that determine the sex of the organism. (X and Y)
All other chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
There are two copies of each autosome. This pair contains genes for the same traits
A photopictograph of the chromosomes in a dividing cell
The cell division of prokaryotes; Starts with multiplying DNA and simply splits into two identical daughter cells
The repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell
This time gap is spent (can vary from cell to cell) to grow the cell and where it carries out specialized function
This synthesis phase lasts approximately 7 hours where DNA is copied and cell continues to grow.
This phase lasts approximately 4 hours; cell continues to grow and starts to prepare to go into mitosis
The duplication and division of the nucleus of the cell and chromosomes in reproduction. The M-phase includes these 4 parts of the cell cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and telophase
DNA condenses, chromosomes appear and move to opposite poles; spindle fibers which appear and attach to kinetichores; nuclear membrane and nucleolus disapper
Kinetochore fibers pull sister chromatids lining them up along the equator or metaphase plate (middle phase; lines up in middle)
Kinetochore fibers pull sister chromatids apart at the centromere and move toward the centrosome; once seperated the sister chromatids are chromosomes
Chromosomes have reached opposite ends of the cell, spindle fibers disassemble, chromosomes uncoil to chromatin, and the nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear.
growth, repair, and reproduction
The three purposes of mitosis is for:
The cell has both chromosomes for each homologous pair
Cell that has one set of chromosomes (no pair) also called gamates
The DNA of eukaryotes are _____.
The DNA of prokaryotes are ______.
A pair of small cylinderical bodies made up of microtubles.
A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
This is made of microtubules and begin to appear and attach to a kinetochore during prophase.
The non-kinetochore fibars which extend across the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome.
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
In animals, the pinching in of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane through the action of microfilimants
In plants, vesicles form in the golgi apparatus and fuse at the midline of the cell forming a membrane-bound cell wall.
The pairing of homologous chromosomes, occurs forming a tetrad
The four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis
The crossing over permits this which is the exchange of genetic material between maternal and paternal chromosomes.
A process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
This is usually not preceeded by DNA synthesis, instead new cells move directly to prophase II.
This product of meiosis which is a haploid reproductive cell.
Four haploid cells which then develope into mature cell or spermatozoa.
The maturity of a sperm haploid cell
Process by which male primary germ cells undergo division, and produce a number of cells termed spermatogonia
This is a product of meiosis which leads to the formation of one ovum.
The female reproductive cell and is only one due to the uneven distribution of cytoplasm.
The three other cells which degenerate; a small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded
A female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions
The production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
The production of offspring from one parent amd does not usually involve meiosis or fetilization (identical)
THe repoduction of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg. Offsping is geneticall different from the parents.
The interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
Red Queen Theory
Theory which states in order to survive you must keep evolving and responding to the enviroment.