What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?
support, structure, aid in movement, blood cell formation and storage
What minerals does the bones store?
calcium and phosphate
What does the body use calcium for?
bone formation, muscle contraction and nerve function
How does the skeletal system aid in movement?
The bones provide an attachment point for the skeletal muscles.
How do the skeletal muscles attach to bones?
using tendons and ligaments
What are the 4 bone shapes?
long bone, short bone, flat bone and irregular bones
What is an example of a long bone?
femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna
What is an example of a short bone?
What is an example of a flat bone?
What is an example of an irregular bone?
What is the central shaft of a long bone called?
What are the extreme ends of the long bone called?
What is the membrane called that surrounds the outside of the diaphysis?
What the the membrane called that lines the inside of the medullary cavity?
What covers the end of the epiphysis where a joint would be?
What type of cartilage is articular cartilage made of?
Where is red bone marrow found?
in the epiphysis
Where is yellow marrow found?
in the medullary cavity
What is the function of red bone marrow?
to produce blood cells
What is the process called that produces blood cells
What type of bone cell build up the bone matrix?
What type of bone cell breaks down bone matrix?
What type of bone cell is found in the lacunae?
What is hydroxyapatite?
a hard crystal compound made up of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
What type of protein fiber is found in the matrix of bone?
What 4 structures make up an osteon?
lamallae, osteonic canal, Volksmann's canal, canaliculi
How is compact bone organized?
What does the osteonic canal hold?
What type of canal connects the osteonic canal to blood vessels?
What are the 2 ways in which bones can be formed?
Bones can form from embryonic membrane or cartilage templates
What is the process called that turns cartilage into bone?
What do intramembranous bone develop from?
What do endochondral bones develop form?
In an intramembranous bone, what develops first: spongy bone or compact bone?
At what point in fetal development will ossification begin?
6-7 weeks after conception
Which bones in the body are intramembranous bones?
flat bones of the skull, mandibles, clavicles
What must happen the the cartilage template before osteocytes can begin to produce bone matrix?
The chondrocytes will swell and die when a blood vessel forms in the center of the diaphysis.
How many bones is a baby born with?
How many bones will an average adult have?
What are the 2 types of bone growth?
Interstitial growth and appositional growth
What type of bone growth occurs at the epiphyseal plate and increases the bone's length?
What type of bone growth occurs in the periosteum and increases the bone's circumference or width?
At what age will the epiphyseal plate fuse?
Between 16-21 years old. Females stop growing before males
Where are the epiphyseal plates located on the bone?
in the epiphysis
What 3 factors affect bone growth?
sufficient calcium, phosphate and vitamin D; correct hormone balance; the aging process
How can you increase your bone density and strength?
excercise regulary, make sure that you are getting the right amount of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D
What will decrease bone density and strength?
pregnancy, illness, eating disorders, nutrient deficiency
What hormone is released from the pituitary gland?
What hormone is release from the thyroid?
What does calcitonin do for the body?
metabolizes calcium and phosphate
What are the 4 hormones that must be balanced for correct bone density?
growth hormone, calcitonin, testosterone, estrogen
How can you increase your bone density as an older adult?
What is a fracture?
a break in the bone
What happens the blood vessels when the bone fractures?
the blood vessles break and the the bone bleeds
What initiates fracture repair?
the bleeding of the bone
What forms after the bone begins to bleed?
a fracture hematoma
What is the purpose of the fracture hematoma?
it is a blood clot that stops the bleeding
What forms on a fracture after the hematoma forms?
What is the function of a callus?
specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the bone together
Why would osteoclasts needs to break down or dissolve bone matrix?
if the body is deficient in calcium, osteocytes will break down the bone matrix to release calcium for the muscle cells and nerve cells to use
What type of fracture causes the affected area to shatter into many small bony peices?
What type of fracture causes the shaft of the bone to break across the long axis?
What type of fracture is produced by a twisting stress and spreads along the length of the bone?
What type of fracture occurs at the ankle and affects both bones of the leg?
What type of fracture is a break in the distal portion of the radius and is often the result of reaching out to cushion a fall?
What type of fracture on breaks one side of the shaft and but leaves the other side bent? This usually occurs in children who bones have not yet fully ossified.
What type of fracture occures between the ephiphysis and epiphyseal plate?
What type of fracture has the ability to halt further longitudinal growth unless carefully treated?
What type of fracture can occur in vertebrae subjected to extreme stress such as falling on your butt?
What type of fracture produces new and abnormal arrangements of bony elements?
What type of fracture retains the normal alignment of the bones?
What type of tissue is cartilage made up of?
Is cartialge vascular or avascular?
How does cartilage get its nutrients?
it diffuses from the perichondrium or synovial fluid into the chondrocytes
What the the membrane called that surrounds cartilage?
Why is cartilage so flexible?
the cartilage fibers are embedded in a firm gel, the matrix contains lots of collagne fibers
Why is cartilage an excellent support system for a developing embryo?
because it forms rapidly and retains its shape and rigidity
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage
What is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body?
Where in the body would you find hyaline cartilage?
covering the epiphysis of bones, costal cartilage (attaches the ribs to the sternum), rings of the trachea and in the skeleton of a developing fetus
What type of cell does cartilage form from?
mesenchymal cells during embyonic development
Where in the body would you find elastic cartilage?
ears, nose, epiglottis, Eustachian tubes
What type of protein fiber do all 3 types of cartilage have?
What extra type of protein fiber allows Elastic cartilage to be extremely flexible?
elastic protein fibers
Where is fibrocartilage found?
iintervertebral disks and the symphysis pubis
Whoch type of cartilage is the strongest and most rigid?
What type of cartilage is the most flexible?
What are the 2 types of cartilage growth?
Interstitial growth and appositional growth
Where does appositional growth occur in cartilage?
When will intersitial cartilage growth occur?
during childhood and adolescence
When will appositional cartilage growth occur?
Whay type of hormone is most important in regulating blood- calcium levels?
What are the 2 hormones that regulate blood-calcium levels?
parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
What are the 3 organs that aide in calcium regulation?
kidneys, small intestine and bone
In a normal healthy adult, how will the kidneys help with calcium levels in the blood?
all calcium that passes though the kidneys will be reabsorbed into the blood stream
How much of the body's calcium reserve is located in bones?
Where in the body is dietary calcium absorbed?
What happens during bone remodeling?
calcium moves in or out of the blood
What type of osteoclast activity occurs during the breakdown of bone?
osetoclasts release calcium back into the blood by dissolving bone matrix
What type of osteoblast activity occurs during the formation of bone?
osteoblasts remove calcium from the blood and deposit it into the bone
What 4 things is calcium homeostasis essential for?
bone formation and repair, blood clotting, nerve conductivity and muscle contraction
What 3 things will the parathyroid do in repsonse to low calcium levels in the blood?
stimulate osteoclasts, increase renal absorption of Ca, stimulate vitamin D synthesis
What is added to the lining of the small intestine epithelial cells to help increase calcium absorption?
calcium binding protein
What organ serves as the greatest reservoir of calcium?
When is calcitonin produced?
when blood- calcium levels are high