Progressives, Imperialism, and World War 1

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Florence Kelley

-Philadelphia middle class daughter of Republican congressman
-graduated from Cornell 1883
-traveled to Zurich and learned about Socialism
-created Hull House
-advocated for regulation of working women and children - 1st woman factory inspector

Progressives

-1910s reform campaign
-1912 formed official Progressive Party
-3 goals...
1. end power abuse, unfair privilege, monopoly and corruption
2. government should intervene to help the common good
3. scientific principles and efficient management to economic, social, and political institutions
-believed in power of people to do the right thing and improve society

muckrakers

-journalists who exposed juicy stories on business in hopes of inspiring reform
-against bosses and machines
-often excluded any non middle class types
-favored direct primaries, nonpartisan elections

Upton Sinclair

-wrote "The Jungle" : revealed crimes of meat packing industry

Ida M. Tarbell

-wrote a critical history of Standard Oil Company

initiative

-propose new laws

referendum

-accept or reject laws

recall

-remove offending officials before term is up

Socialists

-wanted a totally different society
-immigrant intellectuals, industrial workers, disaffected Populists, miners, lumbermen, women's rights activists
-radical

Robert M. La Follette

-"Battling Bob"
-Wisconsin's Progressive Governor (1900)
-wanted direct primaries, equitable taxes, RR rate regulation
-fiery speeches, emotional rhetoric, scientific approach
-elected to Senate after 3 terms as governor

17th Amendment

-1913
-direct election of senators by the voters instead of by "corrupted" state legislatures

protective labor legislation

-protect health and safety and factory inspection
-1916 2/3 states: compensation for industrial accidents
-minimum employment ages, limited hours

Muller v. Oregon

-1908
>more state protection on women workers

Social Gospel Movement

-church based and humanitarian work would improve society

WCTU (Women's Christian Temperance Union)

-group organized in 1874 that worked to ban the sale of liquor in the U.S.
-liquor caused: liver disease, health problems, poverty, accidents, inefficient productivity

18th Amendment

-1918
-outlawed manufacture, sale, and transportation of liquor

WEB Du Bois

-progressive black scholar and writer from New England
-Harvard grad. (Ph.D.)
-attended Fist University,studied in Germany, taught at Atlanta University
-studied black ghetto > wrote supporting civil rights and agitation

Booker T. Washington

-born in 1856, parents were slaves
-educator
-1881 founded Tuskegee Institute: black vocational school
-blacks should cooperate with whites and prove themselves worthy of rights
-whites supported him

Atlanta Compromise

-speech by BTW at Atlanta Exposition
-blacks and whites are separated, but have common goals so they can progress together

"Talented Tenth"

-idea of WEB
-cultured, highly trained blacks should be an example to whites and help blacks
-appealing to middle class whites

NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

-1909
-wanted to end discrimination
-led by white Progressives
-1914: 50 branch offices; >6000 members
-only the fight against lynching affected southern blacks

Ida B. Wells

-black editor and reformer
-wrote "On Lynching" 1892
>destruction of her property and life threats

"the woman movement"

-before 1910
-middle class women wanting to move past the home and to social work, higher education and paid labor
-right to vote
-women's gentleness would humanize society

women's clubs

-middle class literary and educational organizations > social reform groups: social housekeeping
-factory inspection, regulation of childrens' and womens' labor, housing improvement, education, consumer protection

feminism

-began around 1910
-emphasized rights and self developement
-unite as women to make change, stop all sex-typing
-contradiction

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

-wrote "women and Economics" 1898
-no woman domesticity and innocence, attacked male monopoly on economy
-women should take jobs in industry

Margaret Sanger

-led birth control movement
-supported by middle class: wanted to limit family size and immigrant masses
-opposition: threat to family and morality
-1914 indicted for defying 1873 law against sending out obscene literature > fled country
-1921 convinced judges to allow birth control information to be distributed

19th Amendment

-1920
-gave women the right to vote (suffrage)

Carrie Chapman Catt

-leader of National American Woman Suffrage Association
-propaganda campaigns

Alice Paul

-leader of National Women's Party
-meetings and marches

Teddy Roosevelt

-Dutch aristocratic family
-glasses, short, asthma
> tried to be manly: shooting, horseback riding, boxing, wrestling, cowboy
-3 terms in NY State Assembly, ran for Mayor of NY in 1886, Federal Civil Service Commission, Assistant Secretary of Navy
-wrote "The Naval War of 1812" and "The Winning of the West"
-Led cavalry brigade (Rough Riders) in Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War > folk hero
PRESIDENT
-economy needed government support of national affairs
-government should act as an umpire

"trustbuster"

-Roosevelt was this
-ended "bad" trusts that manipulated the market
-DID favor cooperation between business and government

Meat Inspection Act

-1906
-government regulation
-government pays for inspection
-companies not required to present date of processing information of canned goods
-most large companies supported this

Pure Food and Drug Act

-1906
-products must have ingredient labels

William Howard Taft

-elected 1908
-didn't fill Teddy Roosevelt's shoes - more lenient, less stable
-prosecuted trusts, expanded national forests, increased ICC's power, supported labor reform --believed in government restraint, caution,didn't want to offend

16th Amendment

-1913
-established federal income tax

Progressive Party

-party formed by Teddy Roosevelt's supporters
-the "Bull Moose" party

Woodrow Wilson

-born in 1856 in Virginia
-father was a Presbyterian minister
-BA from Princeton; law at VA; Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins
-professor of history, jurisprudence and political economics
-effective and charismatic leader; orator; religious imagery; expression of ideals
-1902: president of Princeton
-1910: governor of New Jersey (Progressive)
-1913 elected as president (Democratic)

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

-extension of Sherman Anti-Trust Act
-outlawed price discrimination and interlocking directorates

Federal Reserve Act

-1913
-first central banking system
-12 district banks to hold reserves of member banks
-supervised by federal reserve board
-lend money at discount rates
-adjusting rates > increase or decrease in money circulation
> fairer interest rates

Hawaiian Constitution 1887

-U.S. forces Hawaii to accept a constitution where feigners vote, shift power from monarch to legislature

McKinley Tariff of 1890

-ended favored status and gave advantage to U.S. companies; Americans in Hawaii want Hawaii annexed so they get domestic benefits

Hawaiian Revolution

-January 1893
-with U.S. troops
-forced Queen to surrender; Cleveland suspects and orders investigation; results: conspiracy by white elite, new rulers ignore and arrest Queen; still annexed in 1898

Manifest Destiny

-"obvious fate"
-God chose America to lead the world
-justifying actions

expansion

-outward movement of goods, ships, dollars, people, and ideas

imperialism

-imposition of control over other peoples, undermining their sovereignty
-domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region in order to increase its own wealth and power

annexation

-legal merging of some territory into another body

nationalism

-a belief that one's nation and its interest are of primary importance

exceptionalism

-idea that U.S. is "unique", perhaps in a superior, unmatched way

paternalism

-the attitude (of a person or a government) that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good

ethnocentric

-tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture

hegemony

-the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others

racial hierarchy

-some people are not capable of ruling themselves and we can help
TOP: civilized white American
BELOW: aggressive Germans
peasant Slavs
sentimental French and Italians
MIDDLE: Latinos
people who needed supervision, help, tutelage
East Asian Orientals, or Mongolians
BOTTOM: uncivilized blacks and Indians

male ethos and imperialism

-our men will be more manly if they prove themselves through imperial action and adventure; weaker nations (and their women) need to be saved by our manly nation

Alfred T. Mahan

-captain and leading proponent of New Navy
-a growing country required a New Navy
-wrote: "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" 1890

New Navy

-a navy that took command of seas
-gained colonies to trade

Hawaiian-annexation

-1898
-Hawaii was seen as part of U.S. system
-strategic and commercial way station during Spanish-American War
-annexation through majority vote

Monroe Doctrine

-no British intervention in the western hemisphere

Jose Marti

-Cuban Hero
-leader of Cuban revolution against Spain for independence
-collected arms, money, and men in U.S.

Tariff 1894

-Wilson-Gorman Tariff
-duty (tax) on Cuban sugar

Cuban Revolution

-began in 1895
-guerrilla warfare
-American and Cuban economy intertwined > trade dwindled
-1897 new government in Madrid: modified reconcentration with some Cuban autonomy

Spanish "reconcentration"

-separation of Cuban insurgents from Cuban supporters
> weakening Cuban revolutionists

"yellow press"

-sensationalism
-like a tabloid
> U.S. sympathetic to Cuba

the Maine

-U.S. blamed Spanish for sinking of this ship > disorder and disaster
> action against Spain

McKinley's War Message

-cause of humanity
-protection of U.S. life and property
-injury to commerce, trade and business
-destruction of the Maine; threats to peace

Teller Amendment

-ensured that the U.S. had not planned to and would not try to annex Cuba
-gaining trust
-assuring unsure Americans

Spanish American War

-went to war because...
-humanitarian concerns
-concern for commerce and property
-political power
-new markets
-expansion and imperialism
-proving New Navy's worth
-religious missions
-national unifier
-adventure

Treaty of Paris 1898

-December 1898
-Cuban independence
-cession of Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.
-America pays 20 million dollars to Spain for these territories

anti-imperialists' arguments

-conquest of people against their will violated the Constitution and the Declaration of Indep.
-throwing away U.S.'s special place among nations
-their government was no more corrupt than our own
-president would not need Congressional approval to send out troops
-domestic issues needed attention
-leading to corruption in society
-taking away American jobs
-undermining white purity

pro-imperialists' arguments

-new markets
-protection
-uplifting of inferior peoples
-showing power, perseverance, bravery
-patriotism
-destiny
-commerce

Open Door Policy

-principle of equal trade opportunity
-foreign imperial powers were taking control in China - U.S. wanted control too
-used to pry open and dominate markets
-domestic well being required exports
-U.S. needed to implant American principles and keep trade open or trade would suffer
-closing others from American products, people, and ideas threatened the U.S.'s survival

Emilio Aguinaldo

-Filipino nationalist leader
-after Spain was defeated Aguinaldo was kicked out of Manila - isolated from decisions affecting his country
-1899 proclaimed independent Philippine Republic and took up arms
-captured by U.S. 1901

Philippine Insurrection

-U.S. burned villages, tortured, used forms of reconcentration, destroyed food supplies
-horrible conditions and disease > death
-capture of Aguinaldo led to U.S. military rule

Jones Act 1916

-promised Philippines independence
-didn't really happen until 30 years later!

Great White Fleet

-world tour of U.S. navy ships
-impressing, scaring, and intimidating Japan
> Japan builds bigger navy

"dollar diplomacy"

-Taft's idea to counter Japanese advancement
-private funds > diplomatic goals and profits for financiers
-bankers joined international consortium to build RR in China
>Japan solidifying and extending holding in China > discrimination against Asians (esp. Japanese) in U.S.

Platt Amendment

-a formalized 1903 treaty
-prevented Cuba from making treaties with other nation that would impair its independence
-all treaties needed U.S. approval
-U.S. had right to intervene > preserving independence and keeping order
-Cuba must lease to U.S. navy base
> rebellion (but the U.S. did make improvements - schools, trans., army, etc.)

Puerto Rico & U.S.

-Puerto Rico welcomed U.S. - we were better than Spain!
-Yankee Peril or Yankee Model (divide)
-U.S. treated Puerto Ricans like children
-Puerto Rico got citizenship in 1917
-became a commonwealth of the U.S. in 1952

Panama Canal and Panamanian Revolution

-1869 British completed Suez Canal > enhanced their empire
-facilitated trade between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
-U.S. wanted the same!
-British allowed U.S. sole control over building of canal
-Columbia (controlled Panama) hesitated to meet U.S.'s terms
> Roosevelt encouraged them to declare independence > sent U.S. war ships to help
-1903 treaty gave U.S. canal zone and independence for Panama
-completed canal in 1914
-armed with guns

Roosevelt Corollary

-inserted into Monroe Doctrine in 1904
-warned Latin American countries to solve political and economic problems, if not, foreign intervention would happen and U.S. would have to act as the police
-U.S. influence and control over government and economy

Indian Removal Act

-Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Homestead Act of 1862

-vast amounts of public land to private citizens
-stop spread of slavery
-homesteader: claim 160-acre parcels of land
-settlers from all types of backgrounds
-had to "prove up": improving and keeping their land
-settlers and business going out west
-depends on assimilation/destruction of Indians

the "Indian Question"

-PROBLEM: racism; cultural differences; competition; land ownership
-SOLUTION: move them: trail of tears; fight; change them: assimilation; treaties
-killed buffalo to try and get rid of Plains Indians
-moved to reservations with worst land
-treaties that got broken
-"tribes" = foreign nations (1795)
-changed tactics..."kill the Indian, save the man"
-assimilation

Dawes Severalty Act of 1887

-1880s: federal government Indian policies: removal; treaties; reservations; war
-1870-1900: government policy focus: brake up reservations by granting land to individuals
-emphasized severalty -the treatment of Indians as individuals rather than as members of tribes
> to weaken them
-breaks up reservation land that belonged to whole tribe and gives out parcels to individuals
-some believed the act would benefit Indians > assimilation
-usually go t worst land, not used to farm life
-By 1901 Indians had control of only 20% of their original reservation land

Indian Rings

?

boarding schools

-Indians were put into these to be assimilated
-learned English, American ways

shell shock

-fixed empty stare, violent tremors, paralyzed limbs, listlessness, jabbering, screaming and nightmares
-post traumatic stress
-psychiatrist got opportunities: foreign crisis > domestic and social betterment

Balkan Countries

-Slavic nationalists wanted to enlarge Serbia by annexing Bosnia (Austria-Hungary)
-assassination
-A-H consults Germany; Serbia consults Russia, who consults France
-A-H declares war > Germany mobilizes
-Germany declares war on Russia and France
-Germany cuts through Belgium to get to France > Great Britain declares war on Germany
-Turkey joins Germany and A-H: Central Powers
-Japan and Italy join Britain and Russia: Allies

June 28th assassination at Sarajevo

-assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: air to Austria-Hungarian throne
-shot by Slavic nationalist
-at Sarajevo (Bosnia)

proclamation of neutrality

-Wilson issues proclamation of neutrality
-did not want people to take sides, feared domestic war

Wilsonianism

-traditional U.S. principles; internationalism and exceptionalism
-U.S. would lead world into peaceful era of commerce, free-market non-exploitative capitalism, democratic politics and open diplomacy
-empires must be dismantled > self-determination
-get rid of weapons
-served U.S. national interest: mix of realism and idealism
-Wilson truly wanted to keep U.S. out of war

British Naval Policy

-Britain wanted stop neutral trade with Germany
>blockade on German waters and mining of the north sea
-seized neutral cargo - prohibited contraband to Germany
-armed merchant ships; waved neutral flags
> Wilson protested, but Britain payed for confiscated cargo

neutral rights

?

submarine and international law

-February 1915 Germany declares war zone around British Isles - using submarines
-Wilson promoted international law: enemy must warn of attacks
-Germany opposed: taking away element of surprise; make the sub an easy target

Lusitania

->1200 passengers, food and contraband
-Germany sent warning: Allied ships in war zone would get destruction
-May 7, 1915 a sub sank Lucy
-killed 128 Americans
-Wilson: this was a brutal assault on innocent people > but no military action
-Bryan advised to not send Americans on Allied ships or ships with war goods
-Wilson refused > Bryan left in protest
-Wilson demanded Germany to stop inhumane action

peace movement

-1915 Women's Peace Party
-Pacifist Progressives: The American union Against Militarism
-Socialists
-war: drained the country of youth, resources, reform; increased repressive spirit; un-Christian; business barons gained profits at expense of people; immigrants coming back to what they had escaped
-Wilson ran for peace in 1916 election and won
> wanted peace without victory

unrestricted sub warfare

-February 1917 German submarine warfare > subs could stop U.S. help to England
-Wilson ended diplomatic relationships

Zimmerman Telegram

-late February: British intelligence sent decoded telegram to German minister in Mexico from German Foreign Secretary Zimmerman
-if Mexico joined against U.S. Germany would them (recovering territories)
>uneasy relations with Mexico: civil war in 1910 Mexican Revolution
-Mexican government taking steps to nationalize U.S. owned property
-Wilson sent American troops in 1914 and 1916
-Mexico rejected Germany's offer - Wilson was still worried > Wilson called for armed neutrality > moving toward war

Wilson's War Message

-April 2, 1917 Wilson accused Germany of warfare against mankind
-Russia was on U.S.'s side
-declared war on Germany on April 6
-fighting for principle, morality, honor, commerce, security and reform
-some critics, but most agreed
-Wilson wanted a say at the peace conference to promote democracy, Open Door, no revolution or aggression

trench warfare

-fighting inside trenches with horrible conditions
-many, many died

mobilization

-getting country ready for war at home
-Money: bonds, taxes
-Soldiers: drafts, Factories and Labor > war economy
-Public Support: propaganda, unity, cooperation, conformity

Food/RR/Fuel Administrations

-Food: engineer and investor Herbert Hoover > increased production and conservation of food
-RR: government RR administration took over industry
-Fuel: government administration controlled coal supplies and rationed gas

War Industries Board

-lead by financier Bernard Barcun
-very powerful, but still had to compromise with business and compete
-coordinators of nation economy: made purchases, regulated supplies, fixed prices at businesses request; standardization of goods
-boom for farmers
-increased steel and cigarettes production
-massive assignments had to happen quickly, lead to mistakes and shortages

War Revenue Act 1917

-steeply graduated income tax, corporate income tax, excess profits tax, luxury items tax
-compromises inflated costs, paid high salaries and bonuses

National War Labor Board

-mediate labor disputes
-negotiation, no strikes or lockouts
-increased Union membership

Liberty Bonds

-financed 2/3 of war effort
-people give money to the government, expecting to be paid back
-the people are getting interest
-loaning money > government is collecting debt

race riots

-African Americans were migrating to the north due to need for workers
-"Negro Invasion"
-stabbings, burnings, shootings
-WEB: whites would always be racist

Committee Public Information

-1917 president appointed George Creel (Progressive Journalist) to head CPI
-used propaganda to mobilize opinion - films, pamphlets, presentations
-used exaggeration, fear mongering, distortion, half truths
-goals: propaganda, unity, cooperation, conformity

Espionage Act 1917

-forbid "false-statements" against the draft and the military
-forbid mailing of treasonous material

Sedition Act 1918

-forbid the obstructing of sale of war bonds
-forbid "abusive" language against government, Constitution, flag or uniform

Civil Liberties Bureau

-headed by Roger Baldwin
-goal was to defend those accused under the Espionage and Sedition Acts
-promote free speech
-protecting political views even if he felt they were abhorrent (hateful)

Schenk vs. U.S. 1919

-upheld the Espionage Act
-Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes believed speech should sometimes be restricted
-in wartime one does not have unlimited speech

Abrams vs. U.S. 1919

-upheld Sedition Act
-Holmes though, had changed his mind - believed free speech was necessary to democracy
-Holmes and Brandeis dissented (disagreed) with majority vote

Fourteen Points

-Wilson's ideas
-January 1918
-the first five: diplomacy in public view; freedom of seas; lower tariffs; decrease armaments; decolonization
-evacuate foreign troops from Russia, Belgium and France
-we needed a general association of nations: League of Nations
-in the 1918 Congressional election, Wilson supported Democrats but Republicans took control > the peace treaty would have to pass through a hostile senate; foreign leaders lost some respect for him; did not name a senator to advisory for conference, would not take any Republicans with him, would not consult the senate Foreign Relations Committee

Paris Peace Conference

-December 1918
-Big Four (France's Georges Clemenceau, Britain's David Lloyd George, Italy's Vittorio Orlando and Wilson) meeting in Versailles
-wanted Germany to pay huge reparations
-Wilson thought this would cause trouble, but gave in: clause blaming the war on Germany and a commission to determine the amount of reparations
-created a "safety-zone" around Russia to protect themselves from Communism

reparations

-Germany needed to pay these for the damage they had done in the war

self determination

-autonomy
-achieved after Paris Peace Conference in Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland

"mandate" system

-put German and Turkish Colonies under imperial control
-Middle East: France and Britain; China: Japan; Rhineland: France

League of Nations

-Wilson wanted this
-a group made to moderate and temper the imperial powers
-5 permanent members, elected delegates from smaller states, assembly of all members, world court
-Germany signed in 1913: gave up 13% of territory; 10% of population; colonies and some wealth
-March 1919 39 senators signed a petition saying that League did not protect U.S. > Wilson exempted Monroe Doctrine and domestic matter from League Jurisdiction

Article 10 of League Covenant

-members of League cannot go to war with each other
-if one member is attacked, League will work together to fix it

Treaty of Versailles

-all the arrangements made at the Paris Peace Conference
-struck down because Wilson would not compromise

"irreconcilables"

-Republicans who opposed all treaties

collective security

-a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
-U.S. did not know if they should endorse this system or continue unilateralism

unilateralism

-non-alignment, freedom of choice

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