Medical Terminology

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chlamydia

parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females

lactation

function of secreting milk after childbirth from the breast or mammary glands

effacement

thining of the cervix during labor

gonorrhea

sexually transmitted inflammation of the musous membranes of either sex

dystocia

abnormal or difficult labor and childbirth

fimbriae

finger like extensions at the end of fallopian tubes

meconium

substance that collects in the intestines of a fetus and becomes first stool of newborn

fundus

domes in upper portion of an organ such as the stomach or uterus

psudeocysis

false pregnancy

infertility

inablitiy to produce children

cryptorchidism

failure of testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth

spermatolytic

destruction of sprem

condyloma

wartlike growth on the external genitalia

rectocele

protrusion of hernia of the rectum into the vagina

atresia

congenital lack of a normal body opening

parturition

childbirth

abortifacient

medication that terminates a pregnancy

amniocentesis

Puncturing of the amniotic sac using a needle and syringe for the purpose of withdrawing amniotic fluid for testing.

amniocentesis

Can assist in determining fetal maturity, development, and genetic disorders.

amnion

inner layer of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus.

amniotic sac

sac containing amniotic fluid in which the baby floats.

amniorrhea

discharge of amniotic fluid

amniotic

pertaining to amnion

amniotic fluid

fluid inside amniotic sac

amniotomy

incision into the amniotic sac

androgen

A class of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex.

testosterone

hormone that produces a masculinizing effect.

androgen therapy

Replacement male hormones to treat patients who produce insufficient hormone naturally.

andropathy

male disease

anorchism

Congenital absence of one or both testes.

anteflexion

While the uterus is normally in this position, an exaggeration of the forward bend of the uterus is abnormal. The forward bend is near the neck of the uterus. The position of cervix, or opening of the uterus, remains normal.

antepartum

before birth

antiprostatic agents

Medications to treat early cases of benign prostatic hypertrophy; may prevent surgery for mild cases.

aspermia

Lack of, or failure to ejaculate, sperm.

balanitis

Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis.

balanoplasty

Surgical repair of the glans penis.

balanorrhea

Discharge from the glans penis.

barrier contraception

Prevention of a pregnancy using a device to prevent sperm from meeting an ovum; examples include condoms, diaphragms, and cervical caps.

Bartholin's glands

Glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete mucus for vaginal lubrication.

benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

Enlargement of the prostate gland commonly seen in males over 50.

breast cancer

Malignant tumor of the breast; usually forms in the milk-producing gland tissue or the lining of the milk ducts.

breasts

Milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn.

mammary glands

Milk-producing glands to provide nutrition for newborn.

breech presentation

Placement of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet are presented first for delivery rather than the head.

bulbourethral gland

two small male reproductive system glands located on either side of the urethra distal to the prostate, secretion neutralizes the acidity in the urethra and the vagina.

crowper's gland

bulbourethral gland

candidiasis

Yeast-like infection of the skin and mucous membranes that can result in white plaques on the tongue and vagina.

castration

Excision of the testicles in the male or the ovaries in the female.

cauterization

Destruction of tissue using an electric current, a caustic product, or a hot iron, or by freezing.

cervical

Pertaining to the neck.

cervical biopsy

Taking a sample of tissue from the cervix to test for the presence of cancer cells

cervical cancer

Malignant growth in the cervix. An especially difficult type of cancer to treat, it causes 5% of the cancer deaths in women. PAP tests have helped to detect early cervical cancer.

cervicectomy

Excision of the cervix.

cervix

The narrow, distal portion of the uterus that joins to the vagina.

cesarean section (CS, C-section)

Surgical delivery of a baby through an incision into the abdominal and uterine walls. Legend has it that the Roman emperor Julius Caesar was the first person born by this method.

chancroid

Highly infectious nonsyphilitic venereal ulcer.

chlamydia

Parasitic microorganism causing genital infections in males and females; can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease in females and eventual infertility.

choriocarcinoma

Rare type of cancer of the uterus. May occur following a normal pregnancy or abortion.

chorion

outer layer of two membranous sacs surrounding the fetus. It helps to form the placenta.

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis; may be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy than amniocentesis.

circumcision

Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce or foreskin of the penis. Generally performed on the newborn male at the request of the parents for ease of hygiene or ritual practice in some religions.

clitoris

A small organ containing erectile tissue that is covered by the labia minora. It contains sensitive tissue that is aroused during sexual stimulation and is similar to the penis in the male.

colostrum

A thin fluid first secreted by the breast after delivery; it does not contain much protein, but is rich in antibodies.

colposcopy

Visual examination of the cervix and vagina using a colposcope or instrument with a magnifying lens.

conception

Fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.

condyloma

Wart-like growth on the external genitalia.

conization

Surgical removal of a core of cervical tissue. Also refers to partial removal of the cervix.

corpus

the body or central portion of the uterus

Cowper's gland

Also called bulbourethral gland.

crowning

When the head of the baby is visible through the vaginal opening. A sign that birth is imminent.

cryptorchidism

Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac before birth. Generally, the testes will descend before the boy is one year old. A surgical procedure called orchidopexy may be required to bring the testes down into the scrotum permanently. Failure of the testes to descend could result in sterility in the male.

culdoscopy

Examination of the female pelvic cavity by introducing an endoscope through the wall of the vagina.

cystocele

Hernia or outpouching of the bladder that protrudes into the vagina, may cause urinary frequency and urgency.

delivery

emergence of the baby from the birth canal.

digital rectal exam (DRE)

Manual examination for an enlarged prostate gland performed by palpating (feeling)the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.

dilation and curettage (D & C)

Surgical procedure in which the opening of the cervix is dilated and the uterus is scrapped or suctioned of its lining or tissue. Often performed after a spontaneous abortion and to stop excessive bleeding from other causes.

dilation stage

The first stage of labor. The thinning of the cervix is called effacement.

dysmenorrhea

Painful cramping that is associated with menstruation.

dyspareunia

Painful sexual intercourse.

dystocia

Abnormal or difficult labor and childbirth.

eclampsia

Convulsive seizures and coma that can occur in a woman between the 20th week of pregnancy and the first week of postpartum. Often associated with hypertension.

effacement

thinning of the cervix during labor.

ejaculation

impulse of forcing seminal fluid from the male urethra.

elective abortion

legal termination of a pregnancy for nonmedical reasons.

embryo

term to describe the developing infant from fertilization until the end of the eighth week.

embryonic

Pertaining to the embryo.

endocervicitis

Inflammation of the inner aspect of the cervix.

endometrial biopsy

Taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus to test for abnormalities.

endometrial cancer

Cancer of the endometrial lining of the uterus.

endometriosis

Abnormal condition of endometrium tissue appearing throughout the pelvis or on the abdominal wall.

endometritis

Inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus.

endometrium

The inner lining of the uterus. It contains a rich blood supply and reacts to hormonal changes every month, which results in menstruation. During a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus does not leave the body but remains to nourish the unborn child.

epididymal

Pertaining to the epididymis.

epididymectomy

Surgical excision of the epididymis.

epididymis

a coiled tubule that lies on top of the tests within the scrotum.

epididymis

tube stores sperm as they are produced and turns into the vas deferens.

epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis that causes pain and swelling in the inguinal area.

episiorrhaphy

Suture the perineum.

episiotomy

Surgical incision of the perineum to facilitate the delivery process to prevent an irregular tearing of tissue during birth.

epispadias

Congenital opening of the urethra on the dorsal surface of the penis.

erectile dysfunction (ED)

Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called impotence.

erectile dysfunction agents

Medication that temporarily produces an erection in patients with erectile dysfunction.

erectile tissue

Tissue with numerous blood vessels and nerve endings.

erectile tissue

becomes filled with blood and enlarges in size in response to sexual stimulation.

estrogen

One of the hormones produced by the ovaries. It works with progesterone to control the menstrual cycle and it is responsible for producing the secondary sexual characteristics.

expulsion stage

Stage of labor and delivery during which the baby is delivered.

fallopian tubes

Organ in the female reproductive system that transports eggs from the ovary to the uterus.

fertility drug

Medication that triggers ovulation. Also called ovulation stimulant.

fertilization

The fusion of an ova and sperm to produce an embryo.

impregnation

fertilization

fetal

pertaining to fetus

fetal monitoring

Using electronic equipment placed on the mother's abdomen to check the baby's heart rate and strength during labor.

fetus

term to describe the developing newborn from the end of the eighth week until birth.

fibrocystic breast disease

Benign cysts forming in the breast.

fibroid tumor

Benign tumor or growth that contains fiber-like tissue, most common tumors in women.

fimbriae

fingerlike extensions on the end of the fallopian tubes, drape over each ovary in order to direct the ovum into the fallopian tube after it is expelled by the ovary.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland. It stimulates growth of eggs in females and sperm in males.

fraternal twins

Twins that develop from two different ova fertilized by two different sperm; although twins, these siblings do not have identical DNA.

genetic counseling

Evaluation of parents' potential for producing a child with a genetic disease; especially important for families with a history of genetic diseases.

genital herpes

Creeping skin disease that can appear like a blister or vesicle, caused by a sexually transmitted virus.

genital warts

Growths and elevations of warts on the genitalia of both males and females that can lead to cancer of the cervix in females.

genitalia

The male and female reproductive organs.

genitourinary system

Referring to the organs of the urinary system and the female or male sexual organs.

gestation

Length of time from conception to birth, generally nine months. Calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, with a range of from 259 days to 280 days.

glans penis

larger and softer tip of the penis

glanis penis

protected by a covering called the prepuce or foreskin

gonorrhea

Sexually transmitted inflammation of the mucous membranes of either sex.

gonorrhea

Can be passed on to an infant during the birth process.

gynecologist

physician specialized in treating conditions and diseases of the female reproductive system.

gynecology

Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the female reproductive system.

hematosalpinx

Condition of having blood in the fallopian tubes.

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Condition in which antibodies in the mother's blood enter the fetus's blood and cause anemia, jaundice, edema, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

hormonal contraception

Use of hormones to block ovulation and prevent contraception.

hormonal contraception

May be in the form of a pill, a patch, an implant under the skin, or injection.

hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Menopause or the surgical loss of the ovaries results in the lack of estrogen production; replacing this estrogen with an oral medication prevents some of the consequences of menopause, especially in younger women who have surgically lost their ovaries.

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Virus that causes AIDS

retrovirus

virus that causes AIDS

hydrocele

Accumulation of fluid within the testes.

hymen

thin membranous tissue that covers the external vaginal opening or orifice.

hymen

membrane is broken during the first sexual encounter of the female.

hymen

this can also be broken prematurely by the use of tampons or during some sports activities.

hymenectomy

Surgical removal of the hymen, performed when the hymen tissue is particularly tough

hypospadias

Congenital opening of the male urethra on the underside of the penis.

hysterectomy

Removal of the uterus.

hysteropexy

Surgical fixation of the uterus.

hysterorrhexis

Rupture of the uterus.

hysterosalpingography

Process of taking an X-ray of the uterus and oviducts after a radiopaque material is injected into the organs.

identical twins

Twins that develop from the splitting of one fertilized ovum; these siblings have identical DNA.

impotence

Inability to copulate due to inability to maintain an erection; also called erectile dysfunction.

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