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Overtraining

Physical state of staleness, tiredness, and even deconditioning caused by too much training and too little recovery, possibly exacerbated by inadequate nutrition

Plyometrics

A strength training method characterized by a rapid stretch of the muscle prior to contraction

Anaerobic threshold

The level of exercise intensity at which anaerobic energy production becomes necessary and lactic acid begins to accumulate in the muscle

Immediate energy system

A system that releases energy stored in creatine phosphate for rapid maximal muscle contraction of very short duration

Anerobic glycolysis

The process that splits glucose into pyruvate and releases energy to ATP and NADH

Aerobic metabolism

A series of processes that begins with the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, proceeds to the critic acid cycle, and ends with the electron transport chain;Aerobic metabolism produces NADH, H+, FADH2, ATP, CO2, and water, and requires oxygen as the final electron acceptor

inorganic phosphate (P1)

Simple phosphate groups incorporated into ATP and other molecules and then released in order to transfer energy

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

High energy chemical compound used to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes

Creatine phosphate (CP)

High-energy chemical compound used to store and transfer high energy electrons released from nutrients asa they are metabolized to ATP

Flavin adenine Dinucleotide (FAD)

An intermediary, formed from the vitamin riboflavin, that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD*)

An intermediary, formed from the vitamin niacin that transfers high-energy electrons released from nutrients as they are metabolized to ATP

Niacin

A B-vitamin used as the basis of NAD*

Riboflavin

A B-vitamin used as the basis of FAD

Lactate (lactic acid)

A three-carbon molecule formed from pyruvate. Excess lactate shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose via the Cori cycle

Cori cycle

The process by which accumulated lactate is shuttled to the liver to be converted back to glucose and returned to muscle. The Cori cycle provides a means to deal with the pyruvate that accumulates during anaerobic glycolysis

Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid)

A three-carboon molecule formed from glucose in anaerobic glycolysis

Coenzyme A

A compound formed from the B-vitamin pantothenic acid that is combined with pyruvate to create acetyl CoA, which then enters the critic acid cycle

Pantothenic acid

A B-vitamin used to form coenzyme A, which activates pyruvate for entry into the citric acid cycle

Acetyl CoA

Formed from pyruvate and coenzyme A;l acetyl CoA allows pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle

Citric acid cycle

The pathway by which acetyl CoA combine with oxaloacetate and thorougha series of reactions yields NADH, H*, FADH2, ATP, CO2, and, finally returns to oxoaloacetate, ready to start the cycle again with another acetyl CoA

Krebs cycle

See citric acid cycle

tCA

see citric acid cycle

Oxaloacetate

A four-carbon comound that begins and ends the critic acid cycle; reacts with acetyl CoA to begin the cycle

Citric Acid

The six-carbon compound that is the product of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle

Electron Transport chain

A series of carrier molecules that transfers the high energy electrons of NADH and FADH along to ATP; their energy is stored in ATP's phosphate bonds are passed to oxygen so that they combine with hydrogen to form water

Gluconeogenesis

The process by which the amino group is removed from amino acids and they are converted to glucose

Mitochondria

The cell structure where most of the reactions in the aerobic production of energy from fat, carbohydrate, and protein take place

Carnitine

A compound formed from amino acids which shuttles activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane into the mitochondria for the beta-oxidation

Beta-oxidation

The process by which fatty acids are metabolized, in which they are shortened two carbons at a time and combined with coenzyme A to form acetyl Co for entry into the citric acid cycle

Ketone bodies

Compounds that are produced when fat is used for energy because insufficient dietary, oxaloacetate cannot be replenished and acetyl CoA from fat cannot enter the citric acid cycle. The excess acetyl CoA is converted into ketone bodies

Carbon skeletons

The carbon framework of an amino acids

Glucogenic

Amino acids which are made into pyruvate and then into glucose through gluconeogenesis

Ketogenic

Amino acids which are made into acetyl CoA for entry into the citric acid cycle, nut which cannot be used in fluconeogenesis to make glucose

Intracellular

Inside cells

Myoglobin

A protein of muscle, similar to hemoglobin, that participates in the transfer of oxygen from the blood to the muscle cells for use in energy production

Collagen

The primary protein found in connective tissue

Scurvy

The disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C

Free Radical

A highly reactive species of oxygen or other substance capable of damaging cell components and contributing to cancer and heart disease

Hemolysis

A breakdown of red blood cells

Glutathione peroxidase

A group of antioxidant enzymes

Erythropoiesis

Synthesis of red blood cells

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

Anemia

The condition of having inadequate red blood cells to transport sufficient amounts of oxygen

Macrocytic

A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too big, caused by folic acid deficiency

Microcytic

A type of anemia in which red blood cells are too small, caused by iron deficiency

Thiamin

A B-vitamin used as the basis of TPP

Thiamin pyrophosphate

A coenzyme which helps convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA and participates in the critic acid cycle

Electrolyte

An atom which carries an electrical charge because of loss or gain of electrons and is found dissolved in fluid

Hyponatremia

The condition of having a low concentration of sodium in the blood

Hypokalemia

The condition of having a low concentration of potassium in the blood

Isotonic

A fluid with solute concentrations equal to those found in body fluids

Hypertronic

A fluid with solute concentrations greater than those found in body fluids

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