Elements of Poetry

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PERSONA

Personality of the poet and the poem

Speaker

The Voice and consciousness inside the poem, who may, or may not, be the poet

Internal Trigger

a reality of thought or emotion inside the poet that helps produce or explain the poem

External Trigger

represents some outside event that may have occured to produce the poem

Tone

Attitude and perspective poet holds toward the subject

ONTOLOGY

Nature and pattern of the poem

Kinds of poems

Epic
Narratice
Lyric

Epic

a great poem of nations, cultures, and heroes

Narrative

poetry that tells a story

Lyric

Poems that are usually short to moderate in length and reveal a poet's perspective on a narrow subject or theme.

Contract

Closed Form
Blank Verse
Rhymed Free
Free Verse
Eclectic

Closed Form

Poetry that contains a clear pattern of rhyming and merer (timing)

Blank Verse

Poetry that has a clear pattern of meter (timing), but without a pattern of rhyming.

Rhymed Free

Poetry that shows a pattern of rhyming, but without a clear pattern of meter

Free Verse

Poetry that is without a pattern of rhyming or meter.

Eclectic

Can be found in long poems whose length allows the poet at various points to employ any number of the standard contracts.

Form

Haiku
Sonnet
Ballad

Haiku

A Japanese poem formed with three lines and secenteen syllables (5-7-5)

Sonnet

A formal poem of fourteen lines, composed in a strict closed form, usually employing lines of ten syllables
*English and Italian forms
~English Version ends with a rhymed couplet

Ballad

A lyric poem with the sound of a song. Generally have a narrative strain and have lines with alrernating rhymes and sound like songs.

Language of Image/ Idea

Image-based poem
Idea-based
Metaphorical language

Image-based poem

A poem that communicates its message through the used of imagery, language dedicated to the senses, with ideas dependent upon the images.

Idea-based poem

A poem that communicates ideas largely through the language of abstraction, language directer toward the logical rather than the sensual.

Metaphorical language

Combines a concrete image in abstract relationship to the original.

Language of Conversion

Presents speech patterns as germane to the poem.

Language of Composition

Presents written patterns as germane to the poem.

Stanza

A section of a poem that is largely the equivalent fot the poetic paragraph.

Refrain

A phrase, linem or stanza within a poem that is regularly repeated.

Quatrain

A four-line stanza of a poem, usually closed in form.

Couplet

A pair of lines with matching meter and rhymes.

EXPLICATION

Theme and meaning within the poem

Theme

The central insight of the work; centeral perception about the life of man or his environment. This is the poet's centeral observation.

Title

Often the title of a work will provide meaningful insight into the poem.

Denotation

The meaning attached to a word by the dictionary.

Connotation

The meaning attached to a word by the culture.

Tension

The conceptual disparity the poet communicates between the real and the ideal.

Ambiguity

Variations in meaning within a poem, any or all of which have reason for validity.

METAPHOR

Figures of speech, comparisons, and non-liberal language.

Metaphor

Any basic comparison between two generally unlike things.

Simile

A common type of metaphor that uses direct comparison words.

Personification

Attributing human qualities and/or human characteristics to non-human entities.

Oxymoron

Juxtapoding two unlike, usually contasting words for effect.

Symbol

When concrete objects take on abstract value

Allusion

A reference to other literature or history
(The Bible, Shakespeare, and Mythology are special sources of allusion in the Western world)

Hyperbole

Purposeful, non-literal, overstatement.

SOUND

Language techniques which apeal to the ear

Alliteratione

repitition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are neatby one another.

Consonace

Repetition of consonant sounds at the end of the words that are nearby one another.

Assonance

Repetition of vowel sounds within words that are nearby one another.

Rhyme

the matching of sounds at the ends of words

Masculine Rhymes

Rhymes that represent sound matches over one syllable only.

Feminie Rhymes

Rhymes that represent sound matchers over two or more syllables.

Rhyme Scheme

A lettered pattern that represents the rhymes in poems at the end of lines.

End Rhyme

Rhymes that occur at the end of poetic lines.

Internal Rhymes

Rhymes that occur within lines.

Slant Rhymes

Rhymes that are end of the line consonance, that is, rhyme in the consonant sound only.

Onomatopeia

Words whose sounds is in keeping with their meanings.

Meter

The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of English. Formal meter is based upon the repitition of feet within lines.

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