Psychology Module #4

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Chapter 13-16

Personality

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Individual Differences

Differences in personality from one person to another

Intrapersonal Functioning

Psychological processes that take place within the person

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

The first comprehensive theory of personality, included ideas about the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms

Free Association

A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind

Preconscious Area

We can retrieve them into conscious awareness; contents are easily brought to current awareness

Unconscious Area

Elements of the mind that are actively kept from consciousness, anything caused by anxiety, we want to keep away

Repress

Forcibly block from our consciousness because it would be too unsettling to acknowledge

Id

Strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives- to survive, reproduce, and aggress

Ego

The young child learns to cope with the real world

Superego

Begins around age 4 or 5, forces the ego to consider the real and ideal, focuses on how one should behave

Rationalization

"I'm only doing it once, blah blah"- Shutting your ego and superego up and satisfying your Id; When we consciously generate self-justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real reasons for our actions

Oral (0-18 months)

Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, and chewing

Anal (18-36 months)

Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands of control- Potty training

Phallic (3-6 years)

Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

Latency (6-puberty)

Dormant sexual feelings

Genital (Puberty on)

Maturation of sexual interests

Oedipus Complex

Boys develop unconscious desires for their mother and jealousy for their father

Identification Process

children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos

Gender identity

Our sense of being male or female

Fixation

Refers to when a person is "stuck" in one stage of psychosexual development

Defense Mechanisms

The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Repression

We have memories, impulses, desires, and thoughts that are too difficult or unacceptable to deal with, we unconsciously exclude them from our consciousness

Regression

There are times when people are faced with situations that are so anxiety provoking that they can't deal with it and they protect themselves by retreating to an earlier stage of development

Reaction Formation

An individual acts in a manner opposite from his or her unconscious beliefs

Projection

When someone is threatened by or afraid of their own impulses so they attribute these impulses to someone else

Displacement

Diverts sexual or aggressive impulses toward an object or person that is psychologically more acceptable that the one that aroused the feelings

Projective Tests

Personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about the pictures their shown

Rorscach Inkblot Test

It seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

reliability; validity

Projective tests lack __________ (consistency of results) and __________ (predicting what it is supposed to)

Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers

Who are the humanists?

Self-Concept

All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"

Unconditional Positive Regard

Carl Rogers; is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings, when one person is completely accepting toward another person

The Trait/Dispositional Perspective

An individual's unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality

Personality Inventories

Questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once

Self-Report

"this is extremely like you, never like you, etc" tests

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

A test that detects abnormal personality styles

"Big Five" Personality Factors

C: Consciousness
A: Agreeableness
N: Neuroticism
O: Openness
E: Extraversion

The Person-Situation Controversy

Walter Mischel points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different

Social-Cognitive Perspective

Bandura; Believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context

Reciprocal Determinism

The interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

Personal Control

Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

External Locus of Control

Perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine fate

Internal Locus of Control

Perception that one controls one's own fate

Learned Helplessness

The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated and aversive events

Positive psychology

Seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character, and positive social groups

Spotlight Effect

Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

Self-Serving Bias

Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorable

Terror Management Theory

Proposes their faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death

False Consensus Effect

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

Psychological Disorder

If a behavior is deviant, distressful, dysfunctional, it is a _________________

Philippe Pinel

Insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind

Etiology

Cause and development of the disorder

Diagnosis

Identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disease from another

Treatment

Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital

Prognosis

Forecast about the disorder; Are they going to get better or worse?

Bio psychosocial (TEST)

Psychological disorders have a biological (genes and brain structure), psychological, and social-cultural

Clinical Syndrome (cognitive, anxiety, mood disorders): Schizophrenia, Depression

Axis I

Personality Disorder or Mental Retardation

Axis II

General Medical Condition: Diabetes, hypertension, arthritis (could be symptoms of depression)

Axis III

Psychosocial or Environment Problems (school or housing issues): Mild problems with spouse

Axis IV

Global Assessment

Axis V

Major Depressive Disorder

Occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions

Bipolar Disorder

Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alteration between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder

'Care of the soul'

Maltreatment of the insane was the result of irrational views

Philippe Pinel and Dorthea Dix

Who founded humane movements to care for the mentally sick?

Psychotherapy

Involved an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a patient/client (psychologist)

Biomedical Therapy

Uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient's nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders (psychiatrist)

Eclectic Approach

Uses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client's unique problems

Psychoanalytic Theory

(Freud) To bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them; When energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts is released, the patients anxiety lessons

Free association

Patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions

Resistance

The patient is trying to prevent certain information coming from their unconscious

Transference

Eventually the patient opens up and reveals their innermost private thoughts, developing positive or negative feelings towards the therapist

Psychodynamic Theory

(Freud) Emphasizes the unconscious components such as conflicts, instinctual energies

Interpersonal Psychotherapy

Effective in treating depression, focuses on symptom relief; Ex: You're depressed because relationships have gone bad

Humanistic Theory

Aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self awareness and self-acceptance

Client-Centered Therapy

(Carl Rogers)- Active listening to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way, building his or her self-esteem

Genuine, apathetic, unconditional positive regard

What are the three essentials of client-centered therapy?

Behavioral Theory

Theory that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

Counterconditioning

A procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors

Systematic Desensitization

Develop a hierarchy of anxieties, we pair a relaxation response with your anxiety to treat phobias

Behavior Modification

In which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are unrewarded or punished

Cognitive Theory

Teach people adaptive ways of thinking on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

A: Activating Effect
B: Belief
C: Consequence

What's the ABC in cognitive theory?

Beck cognitive therapy for Depression

What therapy involves cognitions such as "I can never be happy" need to change in order for depressed patients to recover

Gestalt/Existential Therapies

Come from philosophical theories, concerned with man conscious experience in the here and now, they're born with tension because they're lacking something

Ellis

Which psychologist in the videos is most directive?

Practice/Psychotherapy (TEST)

What is the most effective therapy?

Social Psychology

How we think about, influence, and relate to one another

Social Thinking

Involves thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected

Attribution Theory

Fritz Heider; Suggested that we have a tendency to give casual explanations for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors

Attitude

A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects, other people, and events

He took a Chinese couple out to a 100 different restaurants and hotels and wanted to see if anyone would turn them down because La Piere was with a Chinese couple

What experiment did La Piere do?

Yes

Can actions affect attitudes?

Cognitive Dissonance

When out attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension

Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

Assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role-appropriate attitudes

What experiment did Zimbardo do?

Psychoanalytic

The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective

Weak Ego

Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a-

Oral Fixation

Freud suggested that adults with a passive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of-

Reaction Formation

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as-

The Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung emphasized the importance of ________ in personality functioning

Projective

Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test

Self-actualization

Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate-

A positive self-concept

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of-

Factor Analysis

Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?

The Barnum Effect

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates-

Reciprocal Determinism

Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates-

External Locus of Control

Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates-

A pessimistic attributional style

Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates-

Spotlight Effect

When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates-

Unconscious Wishes

Freud thought that the part of a dream that we remember is a censored version of-

Weak Superego

Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates a-

The Oedipus Complex

According to psychoanalytic theory, boys' fear of castration is most closely associated with-

Displacement

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates-

Repression

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of-

Self-Transcendence

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for-

Carl Rogers

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?

Emotional Disorders

The MMPI was originally developed to identify-

The Big Five

Around the world, people describe others' personality traits in terms that are consistent with a set of factors called-

The Trait Perspective

The stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of-

Situational Influences

We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of-

Reciprocal Determinism

The social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of personal traits and environment, a process that Albert Bandura called-

Learned Helplessness

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates-

Unrealistic Optimism

Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates-

Self-Serving Bias

Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate-

The Medical Model

At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These were replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of-

DSM-IV-TR

A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the-

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from-

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of-

Learning

Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.

Hypochondriasis

Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of-

A dissociative disorder

A sudden loss of memory is a symptom of-

A mood disorder

Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from-

A manic episode

An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with-

Delusions

Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from-

Social withdrawal

What best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

Periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement

Catatonia is characterized by-

Hallucinations

Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce-

Viral infections

The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates-

ADHD

Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of-

Biopsychosocial Approach

An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by-

Biasing power of diagnostic labels

After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as "a passive, dependent type" and "frightened of his own aggressive impulses." This study best illustrated the-

Panic disorders

Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of-

Phobia

Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from-

OCD

Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of-

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