the greatly increased production of goods resulting from the use of power-driven machinery. caused a shift to a more capital intensive conomy based on machines, factories and specialized labor.
the industrial working class
wealth in form of prooperty or $ for investment
the inventer of the spinning jenny
the inventer of the power loom
the developer of the steam engine.
agricultural improvements/ increased food supply/ population increase/ natural resources/ expanding economy/ political stability
causes of industrial revolution in Great Britain (6)
system in which there was a need for larger expensive machines, need for many machines to be close to the same power source, and workers no longer worked at home.
division of labor
breaking a complex task into a number of simpler tasks which are assigned to specialists. complex tasks become simpler.
person responsible for creating the first steam powered boat.
person who created the first railroad line.
cheap transportation/ new jobs
effects of railroads
the rapid development of cities and towns where more people flood into these cities giving a surplus of labor for factories.
the highest class during industrial revolution. despised the growing middle class
the middle class who were the factory owners. some were wealthier than the upper class.
a buisiness owned by entreprenuers and stockholders
a person who organizes, mangaes, and takes on the risk of a buisiness.
shares of ownership in a company. stockholders share in profits but are not personally responsible for debt.
manufactoring becomes the largest sector/ urbanization/ growth in transportation/ new social classes/ search for new sources of raw materials and markes/ environmental impact
the changes of the industrial revolution. (list 6)
the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set wroking conditions without interference. favors a free market unregulated by the government.
laissez faire economics
type of economy that criticized the idea that nations grow wealthy by placing heavy tariffs on foreign goods/. believes that if the gov allowed free trade, the economy would prosper
professor at the university of glasgow who defended the idea of a free economy in book "the welth of nations" believed that economic liberty guaranteed economic progress.
law of self interest/ law of competition/ law of supply and demand
the three laws of economics
the economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
argued that population tended to increase more rapidly than the food supply. without wars and epidemics to kill off the "extra people" most were destined to be poor and miserable. wrote "an essay on the principle of population"
wealthy stockbroker who took malthus' theory one step further in his book "principles of political economy and taxation" beleived that a permanent underlass would always be poor. beleived that wages would b forced down as population increased.
the economic system in which the production and jdistribution of goods is controlled by the community for the wefare of all. wish to replace competition with cooperation community decisions making/ownership of businesses will result in equality.
english pilposopher who modified the ideas of adam smith. introduced the philoophy of utiliarianism
people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility or usefulness.
british factory owner who believed that human nature is formed by social conditions and that cooperative environments allow people to live in harmony. improved work conditions for his employees. Tries to establish an utopia.
perfect living place.
improved the working conditions of his factory workers. established first "infant school" and did not hire children under age of 10.
german jounalist who introduced a radical type of socialism where capitalism must be completely overturned in order to allow the proletariat to prosper.
a radical type of socialism that argues that human societies have always been divided into warring classes, and that the wealthy controlled the means of producing goods, and the poor performed back breaking labor under terrible conditions
A form of complete socialism in which:
• All means of production are owned by the people
• Private property does not exist
• All goods and services are shared equally
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
the formation of work unions who spoke for all the workers in a particular trade. engaged in collective bargaining, negotiations between workers and employers. if factory owners refused these demands, the union members would go on strike. had goals of getting better work conditions and higher wages
refusing to work in rebellion to unfair work conditions
payment for work-related njuries and disabilities.
old age pension
regular payments for the aged
provides income to those who have lost their jobs
combination acts of 1799 and 1800
acts in britain that outlawed unions and strikes.
American federation of labor
union formed in the us by several separate unions.
factory act of 1833
act that made it illegal to hire children under 9 years old. children from ages 9-12 could not work more than 12 hours.
act that prevented women and children from working underground.
ten hours act of 1847
act that limited the workday to ten hours for women and children who worked in factories.
types of reforms set by us as the federal laws were turned down by the supreme court.
religious man who was a member of parliament and led the fight for abolition
believed slavery is wrong/ low paid factory workers are more efficient than slaves/ free people would be consumers of manufactrued goods
motives of abolishing slavery (3)
reform in the us that abolished slavery.
international counsil for women
counsil made up of women from 27 countries.
us reformer who favored ree public education fro all children
the landowners in latin america after liberation.
large landed estates o wealthy landowners
system in which a person is orced to pay of all loans with direct labor debtors are often tragged into working or very little or $$.
a military dictator of a latin american country. often mestizo. ruled through military force. supported by landed elites who kept them in power.
major export in latin america. caused an unbalance in trade and decline in industrialization.
ruled mexico as a caudillo. established a centralized conservative government that supported by army, foreign capitalists, large landowners, and catholic church. peons remained in poverty. modernization program allowed us and britain and us to make investments. established mines factories and plantations. real wages of working class declined under his rule
forced diaz to tep down. open door to the mexico revolution.
leader of mexico revolution. encouraged landless people to rise up and seize haciendas of wealthy landowners. very radical. demanded land reform.
breaking up large landholdings and distributing the land to peasants and small farmers.
constitution of 1917
constitution that etablished a strong presidency, initiated land reform policies, established limits on foreign investors and set agenda social ewlfare for wrkers.
constitution of 1917
broke up large estates, restrictions on foreign ownership, and gov control over resources. state take over of land owned by church. min wage, right to strike and labor unions. equal $ for equal work and legal righs for women.
the author of the description of industrial manchester who critiqued the negative and unsanitary living conditions/effects of urbanization.
a description of industrial manchester
the document written by frederick engels describing the negative effects of urbanization
the author of the philosophy of the manufacturers, a document describing the benefits of factories.
the philosophy of the manufacturers
document written by andrew ure describing the beneits of factories.
a committee of parliament that investigates industrial conditions and interviewed workers.
karl marx and friedrich engels
the author of the communist manifesto, describing the rise of the proletariats against the bourgeosie.
author of observations on the effect of the manufacturing system, a document that says that economic advancements are taking the place of people's well being.
observations on the effect of the manufacturing system
document written by robert owen who describes how the industrialization and aquirement of wealth is causing people to lose their morals and lose their welfare.
author of a document on the advocation on militancy and direct action to promote the cause of feamles.
why we are militant
document by emmeline pankhurst on how women are willing to use violence in order to gain rights.
the author of the document the wealth of nations, about how the laissez-faire ideology would let individual self interest act as the motor of economic progress.
the wealth of nations
document by adam smith that claims that in a person's desire for self interest in a free economy, the "invisible hand" would also cause them to improve the national economy.
the author of the document plan of ayala which proposed a list of demands of reforming mexico, especially in the unfair distribution of land.
person who demonstrated through an interview that talks about his presidency in mexico and the reforms made.
the author of a speech about the land reforms needed in Mexico and how the hacienda system is enslaving the people to them by only letting a few people rule over the majority.
Work on the Henequen Haciendas of Yucatan
document accounting of the harsh and cruel systems of the haciendas on which peons were enslaved to their harsh work.