Organic Chemistry: Mr. Baldridge

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Alkanes

single covalently bonded carbon and hydrogens

CnH2n+2

alkanes

meth

1 (gas)

eth

2 (gas)

prop

3 (liquid or gas)

but

4 (liquid)

pent

5 (liquid)

hex

6 (liquid)

hept

7 (liquid)

oct

8 (liquid)

non

9 (liquid)

dec

10 (liquid)

alkenes

double covalent bond between two carbons

CnH2n

alkenes

alkynes

triple covalent bonds

alkanes

end in -ane

alkenes

end in -ene

alkynes

end in -yne

isomers

branched hydrocarbons

hydrocarbons

organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen, contain at least two elements, covalently bonded

saturated polymers

a material composed of macromolecules within which all carbon-carbon bonds are single

unsaturated polymers

a material composed of macromolecules within which there are double or triple bonds in the molecular chain.

substituted hydrocarbons

one or more hydrogens replaced by other elements

alchohols

ends in -anol

alchohols

have OH

organic acids

taking alchohol, adding a carboxyl

carboxyl

COOH

organic acids

end in -anoic acid

esterication

combined an organic acid with an alchohol forming an ester

tetrahedral

4 bonding partners, 109.50 bond angle

trigonal

3 bonding partners, 120 bond angle

linear

2 bonding partners

linear

2 bonding partners, 180 bond angle

linear

180 bond angle

tetrahedral

4 bonding partners

tetrahedral

109.50 bond angle

trigonal

3 bonding partners

trigonal

120 bond angle

halogen derivitive

substitute one or more of the hydrogens with a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I, At)

cyclo

circle

alkenes

-ene

ketone

double oxygens,
contains an internal C=O group

isomers

end in -yl

ketone

ends in -one

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