Santrock Ch17: Physical Development in Late Adulthood

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Physical Development in Late Adulthood

life span

The upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years an individual can live. The maximum life span of human beings is about 120 to 125 years of age.

life expectancy

The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year.

cellular clock theory

Leonard Hayflick's theory that the maximum number of times that human cells can divide is about 75 to 80. As we age, our cells have less capability to divide.

free-radical theory

A microbiological theory of aging that states that people age because inside their cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals. These molecules ricochet around inside cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures.

mitochondrial theory

The theory that aging is caused by the decay of mitochondria, tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for function, growth, and repair.

hormonal stress theory

The theory that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease.

neurogenesis

The generation of new neurons.

cataracts

Involve a thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted.

glaucoma

Damage to the optic nerve because of the pressure created by a buildup of fluid in the eye.

macular degeneration

A disease that involves deterioration of the macula of the retina, which corresponds to the focal center of the visual field.

arthritis

Inflammation of the joints that is accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement problems; especially common in older adults.

osteoporosis

A chronic condition that involves an extensive loss of bone tissue and is the main reason many older adults walk with a marked stoop. Women are especially vulnerable to osteoporosis.

According to Arnett, which of the following are NOT key features that characterize emerging adulthood?
A) identity exploration
B) instability
C) commitment to others
D) self focused

C) commitment to others

In the United States, which of the following is the most widely recognized marker of entry into adulthood?
A) economic independence
B) independent decision making
C) holding a more-or-less permanent full-time job
D) graduation from high school

C) holding a more-or-less permanent full-time job

Regarding early adult health knowledge and behavior, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) College students have a poor understanding of what it takes to prevent illness and promote health.
B) College students clearly see the relationship between their risk of heart attack and their nutrition and exercise habits.
C) In early adulthood, few people stop to think about how their personal lifestyles will affect their health later in their adult lives.
D) Most young adults have realistic beliefs about their future health risks.

C) In early adulthood, few people stop to think about how their personal lifestyles will affect their health later in their adult lives.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of physical development in early adulthood?
A) reaching the peak of physical performance
B) notice of the decline in physical performance
C) large changes in the sensory systems
D) increase in the body's fatty tissue

C) large changes in the sensory systems

According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, what percentage of American adults 20 years of age and older are obese?
A) 8%
B) 27%
C) 33%
D) 42%

C) 33%

All the following biological factors EXCEPT __________ are involved in obesity.
A) a change in the human genome
B) leptin
C) set point
D) environmental factors

A) a change in the human genome

Regarding alcohol and drug use, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) About 10% of alcoholics recover, whether they are in a treatment program or not.
B) An estimated 20% to 35% of individuals who become alcoholics are believed to have a predisposition towards it.
C) Binge drinking peaks at about age 18.
D) Cultural variations underscore the environment's role in alcoholism.

D) Cultural variations underscore the environment's role in alcoholism.

Which of the following conclusions was NOT made by the 1994 survey of sexual practices among Americans?
A) Men think about sex far more often than women do.
B) Adultery is less common than originally believed.
C) Married and cohabitating people have sex more often than noncohabitating couples.
D) Americans' sexual lives are more liberal than suggested by previous surveys.

D) Americans' sexual lives are more liberal than suggested by previous surveys.

Regarding the development of a nonheterosexual sexual orientation, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Being raised by a gay parent increases one's likelihood of being homosexual.
B) Sexual orientation is determined by a combination of factors.
C) Male homosexuality is thought to be caused by growing up with a dominant mother and weak father.
D) Female homosexuality is believed to be caused by girls choosing masculine role models.

B) Sexual orientation is determined by a combination of factors.

Sexually transmitted infections affect about one in every ______ adults.
A) 4
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10

B) 6

Which of the following is NOT a protective measure against AIDS?
A) knowing your and your partner's risk status
B) having protected sex
C) taking acyclovir

C) taking acyclovir

__________ is when one person uses his or her power over another individual in a sexual manner.
A) Rape
B) Sexual harassment
C) Date rape
D) Acquaintance rape

B) Sexual harassment

Which theorist suggests that young adults become less idealistic as they enter the work force and face the constraints of reality?
A) Gisela Labouvie-Vief
B) William Perry
C) Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
D) John Holland

A) Gisela Labouvie-Vief

According to William Perry, adolescent thinking is __________, and adult thinking is __________.
A) absolute; relative
B) qualitative; quantitative
C) absolute; absolute
D) quantitative; qualitative

A) absolute; relative

__________ is a characteristic of postformal thought.
A) Understanding that arriving at the right answer may require absolute clarity
B) Knowing that the correct answer may vary from situation to situation
C) Being objective and avoiding emotions in decision making
D) Lack of understanding that the search for truth is often never-ending

B) Knowing that the correct answer may vary from situation to situation

Researchers have found that creativity peaks in one's _____.
A) 20s
B) 30s
C) 40s
D) 50s

C) 40s

A recent survey states that the main sources of stress included all of the following EXCEPT:
A) lack of advancement opportunities
B) low salaries
C) forced objectives
D) uncertain job expectations

C) forced objectives

Which of the following statements regarding work in early adulthood is FALSE?
A) Ethnic diversity is increasing in most developed countries.
B) Work and lack of work can both be sources of stress.
C) In the United States, one-half of all lawyers, physicians, computer scientists, and chemists today are females.
D) Juggling work and family responsibilities is an issue for dual-earner couples.

C) In the United States, one-half of all lawyers, physicians, computer scientists, and chemists today are females.

A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called _____.
A) acute
B) chronic
C) terminal
D) pervasive

B) chronic

Which of the following is usually considered the reason for the decline in alcohol intake of 65-year-olds?
A) an increase in illness and disease
B) expert elder care in nursing homes
C) improved education about health and fitness
D) alternate programs for de-addiction

A) an increase in illness and disease

Substance abuse often goes undetected in older adults because:
A) older adults know how to disguise it.
B) health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.
C) caregivers do not report symptoms.
D) their symptoms are different than for younger adults.

B) health professionals expect their symptoms to be associated with age-related disease.

Your 90-year-old uncle complains that he cannot get around the way he used to. He has trouble getting up out of chairs and difficulty walking across the room when he does get up. Can you help him?
A) Yes, you could have him take estrogen to improve his bone structure.
B) No, this sort of physical decline is irreversible.
C) Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.
D) No, physical exercise only tends to make the physical declines of old age worse.

C) Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.

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