communication of a blood vessel with another blood vessel by a connecting channel
bruise that results when a blood vessel is injured and a small amount of blood escapes into the surrounding tissue and clots.
large amounts of blood that escape into the surrounding tissue without clotting when a blood vessel is seriously injured.
substance which consists of cholesterol (mainly), calcium, clotting proteins, and other substances that can be found lining arteries
clot that forms on the inner blood vessel wall; can lead to stroke, heart attack, or tissue destruction
For the LEFT side of the body, the common carotid and subclavian arteries arise directly from the:
For the right side of the body, the common carotid and subclavian arteries are both branches from the:
A branchless artery that travels up the neck, lateral to the trachea and larynx, to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage -
common carotid artery
The sheath that contains the common carotid also contains:
the internal jugular vein and the tenth cranial/vagus nerve
How does the common carotid end?
by dividing into the internal & external carotid arteries at about the level of the larynx
Just before the common carotid bifurcates into the internal & external carotid arteries, it exhibits a swelling called the:
How is the common carotid palpated?
by rolling the anterior border of the SCM posteriorly at the level of the thyroid cartilage
Arises lateral to the common carotid artery; gives off branches to supply both intracranial and extracranial structures:
A division that travels upward in a slightly lateral position after leaving the common carotid artery:
internal carotid artery
Has no branches in the neck but continues adjacent to the internal jugular vein within the carotid sheath to the skull base, where it enters the cranium:
internal carotid artery
The internal carotid artery supplies the intracranial structures and is the source of the ______ artery.
Begins at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, at the termination of the common carotid artery and the carotid sheaths:
external carotid artery
Where does the external carotid artery travel/?
upward in a more medial position (in relationship to the internal carotid) after arising from the common carotid artery.
What does the external carotid artery supply?
the extracranial tissues of the head and neck, including the oral cavity.
The external carotid has __ sets of branches grouped according to:
4 sets; according to their location: anterior, posterior, medial, and terminal branches
The 4 branches of the superior thyroid artery:
the infrahyoid artery, SCM branch, superior laryngeal artery, and cricothyroid branch
What doe the superior thyroid artery branches supply?
the tissues inferior to the hyoid bone including the infrahyoid muscles, SCM, muscles of the larynx, and thyroid gland
An anterior branch from the external carotid artery and arises superior to the superior thyroid artery at the level of the hyoid bone:
Where does the lingual artery travel?
anteriorly to the apex of the tongue by way of the its inferior surface.
What does the lingual artery supply?
the tissues superior to the hyoid bone including the suprahyoid muscles and FOM by the dorsal lingual , deep lingual, sublingual, and suprahyoid branches & the tongue.
Supplies the mylohyoid muscle, sublingual salivary gland, and mucous membranes of the FOM:
the sublingual artery
What artery arises slightly superior to the lingual artery as it branches off anteriorly?
the facial artery
What is the facial arteries complicated path?
runs medial to the mandible, over the submandibular salivary gland, and then around the mandible's inferior border to its lateral, runs anteriorly and superiorly near the angle of the mouth and along the side of the nose.
What does the facial artery supply?
the face in the oral buccal, zygomatic, nasal, infraorbital, and orbital regions
What does the ascending palatine artery supply?
the soft palate, palatine muscles, and palatine tonsils, and can be the source of the serious blood loss that may occur during a tonsillectomy
What artery branches from the facial artery supplies the submandibular lymph nodes, submandibular salivary gland, and mylohyoid and digastric muscles?
the submental artery
Another branch from the facial artery that supplies the lower lip tissues including the muscles of facial expression?
inferior labial artery
This artery is the termination of the facial artery and supplies the tissues along the side of the nose?
The only medial branch that comes from the external carotid artery?
the ascending pharyngeal artery; supplies soft palate
Two posterior branches of the external carotid artery:
the occipital artery and posterior auricular artery
Arises from the external carotid as it passes upward behind the ascending ramus of the mandible and travels to the posterior portion of the scalp:
the occipital artery
What does the occipital artery supply?
the suprahyoid and SCM, as well as the scalp and meningeal tissues in the occipital regions
Where is the posterior auricular artery located?
arises superior to the occipital artery and stylohyoid muscle at about the level of the tip of the styloid process
From where does the external carotid artery split into terminal branches?
the parotid salivary gland
Superficial temporal artery:
is the smaller terminal branch of the external carotid artery; can sometimes be visible under the skin of the temporal region in the patient
Which artery supplies the parotid salivary gland and nearby facial tissues?
the small transverse facial artery
What branches of the superficial temporal artery supply the portions of the scalp in the frontal and parietal regions?
the frontal branch and parietal branch
What veins does the facial vein anastomoses with?
the pterygoid plexus in the infratemporal fossa and with the large retromandibular vein before joining the internal jugular vein at the level of the hyoid bone
The retromandibular vein:
will form the external jugular vein from a portion of its route; it is formed by the merger of the superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein.
The pterygoid plexus of veins:
a collection of small anastomosing vessels located around the pterygoid muscles and surrounding the maxillary artery on each side of the face in the infratemporal fossa.
What does the pterygoid plexus do?
it protects the maxillary artery from being compressed during mastication, by either filling or emptying.
Some portions of the pterygoid plexus of veins are near?
the maxillary tuberosity, reflecting the drainage of dental tissues into the plexus.
When can an extraoral hematoma occur?
during a local anesthetic injection, especially when a posterior superior alveolar block near the pterygoid plexus of veins has been incorrectly administered
When can an intraoral hematoma occur?
when an infraorbital block or inferior alveolar block is administered incorrectly
A passageway to carry the secretion from the exocrine gland to the location where it will be used.
Type of gland with an associated duct that serves as a passageway for the secretion so that it can be emptied directly into the location where the secretion is to be used.
What is a gland?
a structure that produces a chemical secretion necessary for normal body functioning.
paired exocrine glands that secrete lacrimal fluid (tears). Not only drains from eye but continues into the nasolacrimal duct, which drains into the inferior nasal meatus.
Major Salivary glands
large paired glands and have named ducts associated with them.
(parotid, submandibular, and sublingual)
Parotid salivary gland
the largest encapsulated major salivary gland but provides only 25% of the total salivary vol.; salivary product from this gland is purely serous.
What duct is associated with the parotid salivary gland?
Stensen's duct; emerges from the anterior border of the gland, superficial to the masseter muscle, pierces the buccinator muscle.
Where does Stensen's duct open into the oral cavity?
on the inner surface of the cheek, usually opposite the second maxillary molar
a small elevation of tissue that marks the opening of the parotid duct on the inner surface of the cheek
Submandibular salivary gland
the second largest salivary gland yet provides 60-65% of total salivary vol.; mixed salivary product that has both serous and mucous secretions
a small papilla near the midline of the mouth floor on each side of the lingual frenum; this is where Wharton's duct opens into the oral cavity.
Where is the submandibular duct located?
occupies the submandibular fossa in the submandibular fascial space, mainly in its posterior portion
The submandibular duct is innervated by what nerve?
by the chorda tympani and the submandibular ganglion of the facial nerve
Sublingual salivary gland
smallest, most diffuse, and only unencapsulated major salivary gland, provides only 10% of total salivary vol.; has mixed salivary product, but with the mucous secretion predominating.
Where is the sublingual gland located?
in the sublingual fossa in the sublingual fascial space at the FOM; is superior to the mylohyoid muscle and medial to the body of the mandible
Minor salivary glands
smaller than the larger major salivary glands but are more numerous in number; are exocrine glands, but ducts are shorter and unnamed.
Where are minor salivary glands located?
scattered in the tissues of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral portions of the hard palate, and the FOM
von Ebner's glands
are minor salivary glands that are associated with the large circumvallate lingual papillae on the posterior portion of the tongue's dorsal surface; secretes only a serous type of salivary product
largest endocrine gland; consists of 2 lateral lobes that are connected by an isthmus.
What does the thyroid gland produce and secrete?
thyroxine, which is a hormone that stimulates the metabolic rate.
an endocrine gland; is a portion of the immune system that fights disease processes; T-cells mature here.
which blood cells of the immune system that mature in the thymus gland in response to stimulation by thymus hormones