The Great War War
(World War I): 1914-1918; war between Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire) and the Allies (British, French, Russian, and later Americans); Allies win.
The Versailles Treaty
peace treaty that ends WWI; blames Germany completely for war; harshly punishes Germany with heavy reparations, and forbids Germany from having any type of military (Germans deeply resent terms of treaty, feel they
payments from one nation to another (or others) to pay the costs of a war; Germany required to pay all the costs associated with WWI; bankrupts German economy
German Chancellor who managed to convince German Reichstag (their legislature) to give him dictatorial powers; he called his system of governing (Nazism)
Head of German government
Nationalism is fierce love of nation, sometimes at the expense of the civil liberties of your own people or the freedom of foreign peoples
Asian nation that allowed a military dictatorship to take control of the country; in the 1930s, suffering the Great Depression and feeling that the population needed room to grow, the Japanese began an aggressive foreign policy of making war against Asian nations in the quest to establish the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
European nation that also was politically taken over by a dictator (Francisco Franco)
European nation that also was politically taken over by a dictator (Benito Mussolini); he established a system of rule known as Fascism
European nation that underwent a communist revolution around 1918; in the thirties, a dictator (Joseph Stalin) ruled the nation with an iron fist
Dictatorial form of government where all powers are possessed by one leader (or a small group of leaders)
Hatred of Jews, with long history in the world, beginning with the adoption of Christian faith among most Europeans, e.g., expulsion or forced conversion of Jews in Spain in 1492.
"Night of Broken Glass" used to describe November 10, 1938 when mobs wreaked havoc on Jewish businesses in Germany, destroying windows, shops, etc.
Racist-based ideology that divided the world peoples into races and deemed some races superior to other races. (some believed people of Aryan, or White Northern European, descent were superior to Jews)
Attempted genocide of the Jews of Europe, carried out by Hitler, who believed the Jews were to blame for all of Germany's troubles in the 1920s, and 1930s; Hitler fused anti-Semitism with modern technology (e.g., railroads); other "inferior" groups also targeted for annihilation, including gypsies, Slavs, homosexuals, people who were against Hitler)
Polish military barracks that was converted by the Germans into a concentration camp where the Jews of Europe were shipped; estimated that 3 million people murdered there.
People fleeing tyranny and persecution
20,000 German children
Refers to a group of 20,000 Jewish German children who managed to escape Germany only to be denied entry to the U.S. despite the willingness of Americans to house, feed, and school the children until the war's end.
Those who believe their nation should stay out of world affairs (in this case, they opposed U.S. involvement in the war against the Axis)
Those who believe all war is wrong, and that we should never fight any war.
Germany, Italy, and Japan
Eventually include Great Britain (the United Kingdom), France, Soviet Union, China, United States
German conquests by mid-1941
Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium
German word for "lightning war"... describes their onslaught of troops, tanks, artillery that quickly and decisively overwhelms the invaded nation.
Town in France where British and French troops fell back during the German invasion; a ragtag collection of military and civilian vessels manages to ferry most of the troops to safety in Great Britain; France falls in June 1940
Japanese conquests by mid-1941
Manchuria (1931), more parts of China (1937), French Indochina, Thailand, the Philippines.
General who replaces Prime Minster Fumimaro Konoe; his ascension to head of the government means that military and civilian leadership now controlled by one man = military dictatorship
U.S. naval battleships in Pearl Harbor; ships include Oklahoma, Maryland, W. Virginia, Tennessee, Vestal, Arizona, Nevada; all these are either sunk or severely damaged by Japanese bombs.
December 7, 1941
Simultaneous attack by Japanese military on the following:
Located on Oahu, Hawaii, a U.S. protectorate at the time) is where the ships of U.S. navy that are designated for the Pacific Ocean are headquartered (their home port or harbor, where they dock when not at sea); i.e., their Pacific Fleet; a disaster for the U.S.; heavy naval losses, near total aircraft losses, and approximately 2,000 deaths.
Pacific Island where U.S. has military base
Pacific Island where U.S. has military base
Pacific Island where U.S. has military base
British-controlled island/city in China
British-controlled city in China
Asian nation that U.S. is governing at the time
December 8, 1941
U.S. declares war on Japan, and its allies, Germany and Italy; on December 11, 1941: Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
U.S. president from 1933 - 1945, throughout most of World War II.
British Prime Minister (head of state) throughout most of World War II.
Soviet (USSR) head of the communist party and therefore, head of state, throughout World War II.
German-Soviet non-aggression pact
Treaty between the USSR and Germany in which each side agreed not to invade each other; they did agree to invade Poland from the East and the West and to divide her up
German air force that began major bombing campaign against Great Britain (Battle of Britain); bombing campaign of London known as "the Blitz"
Translated means, "my struggle", Book written by Hitler that laid out his goal of world domination, based on the premise that the Germans were a "master race" that needed room to grown, and the people of other nations to serve them as slaves
German invasion of USSR 1941-1942
Germans break Soviet-German treaty and invade the Soviet Union; motivated by need for wheat and other resources; despite Hitler's belief that the Germans would easily defeat the Soviets, the Soviet people's will, size of their nation, and the cold winter conspire to prevent a German takeover.
Style of warfare massively employed during WW II where airplanes drop bombs on cities, leading to massive civilian casualties; there is dispute on how effective this approach is to bringing a quicker end to the fighting (or whether it motivates the opponent to fight on to the bitter end).
Battle on a Pacific Island
Type of fighting that the U.S. had to prepare for in order to defeat the Japanese; required the invention and deployment of new types of landing equipment and war gear, such as amphibious vehicles and jeeps.
Type of warfare where subs. Remain submerged for months at a time, stealthily hunting down enemy ships to sink with torpedoes; fought by the Allies and Axis in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Secret language designed to enable communication with your own forces and those of your allies, while confusing the enemy
German code machine that was captured by English forces and smuggled to England; eventually, English code-breakers broke the code, and subsequently could intercept German messages and know their military plans.
Navajo code makers
U.S. military code makers who designed a code based on the Navajo language; the code was never broken by the Axis and proved crucial to Allied victory.
Two ocean (two front) war
Type of war that the U.S. had to fight in WW II where there were two theaters of war (European theater: Allies vs. German and Ital and Pacific Theater: Allies vs. Japan)
German submarines which were extraordinarily successful in sinking Allied supply ships (carrying weapons, tanks, oil and troops) traversing the Atlantic Ocean; in 1942 Jan-April, 200 ships were sunk; eventually, the German code was broken so our ships could be better protected against the U-boats.
Battle of the Coral Sea
1942 U.S. victory of Japanese forces; U.S. forces prevented the Japanese from capturing a strategic base in New Guinea, likely saving Australia from invasion.
Battle of Midway
1942 U.S. victory of Japanese forces; crucial in protecting Hawaii and, possibly, the West Coast from attacks by the Japanese air force.
Battle of Guadalcanal
1942 U.S. victory of Japanese forces; U.S. forces prevent the Japanese from establishing an air base on the Solomon Islands
Admiral King's philosophy
U.S. Navy admiral who advocated for standing up to the Japanese before she got too strong; other military leaders had been calling for complete focus on Germany and the war in Europe
Battle of Guadalcanal
First offensive campaign against the Japanese in which U.S. forces prevented the Japanese from establishing an air base on the Solomon Islands; control of this area was crucial to protecting shipping lanes and flight paths between Australia, New Zealand, and Japan; U.S. Marines fight valiantly, take Japanese airfield, re-name it Henderson Field; FDR: we have a "toehold in the Pacific;" considered the "turning point in the war" (now U.S. is on offense)
Guadalcanal Battle death
Japanese death totals dwarf U.S. totals (23,800 vs. 1,598)
The waters surrounding Guadalcanal where 24 ships were sunk.
Japanese internment camp
Prison-like camp that 120,000 Isei and Nisei (1st and 2nd generation Japanese Americans) were forced to go beginning in February 1942, by an order of President Roosevelt.
Many Americans, especially along the West Coast, come to believe that all people of Japanese descent are dangerous, that they are pro-Japan, and are willing to be traitors to the U.S. in her war against Japan
law regarding Japanese immigrants
Immigration laws prevented Japanese-born American residents from becoming U.S. citizens
2nd generation Japanese-Americans; born in America, therefore, citizens of the U.S.
Putting the Japanese-Americans in camps
California politician who advocates for imprisoning Japanese Americans.
J. Edgar Hoover
Head of the FBI who says that internment is unnecessary, that the FBI can maintain appropriate surveillance over alleged spies.
Constitutional right that protects citizens (and their belongings) from "unreasonable searches and seizures"
Constitutional right that protects citizens from state actions that "deprive (you) of life, liberty, or property without due process of law."
Constitutional right that protects you from incarceration without a judge finding that there is good evidence that you may have committed a crime.
Executive Order 9102
FDR signs Executive Order that requires all West Coast Isei and Nisei to immediately leave their homes and go to 10 different internment camps; camps open until 1946; president justifies order as a "war measure," claiming that the Japanese-Americans are potential spies for Japan.
Tens of thousands of Nisei serve in the U.S. military during World War II; one Nisei regiment fighting in Europe earned more commendations than any other regiment.
Convictions of Japanese spies
10 people convicted for spying on behalf of the U.S.; only one was of Japanese descent, and she, Iva Ikuda Toguri, was in Japan throughout the war.
Nazi naval code; U.S. government cracked code so we could detect German u-boat whereabouts
Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet troops laid siege on the German army... finally halting and turning back Germany invasion of USSR
Airplane manufacturing plant in Michigan
Soviet wish for the Allies, esp. British and Americans, to open a battle front against the Germans in Western Europe
Allied invasion of Northern Africa; Allied victory; Germans and Italians ousted from Northern Africa
Allied invasion of Sicily and Italy; fighting continues on Italian peninsula for while
Code name for Allies invasion of France
Establish second front in France
The Atlantic Wall
German defense of France, including mines along the coast, steel and concrete barriers in the water and on the beaches, barbed wired, huge steel spikes on the beach, bunkers filled with antitank guns, artillery, flamethrowers and machine guns
June 4, 1944 the day Operation Overlord was executed and Allied troops landed on the Normandy, France beaches; Allies gain a foothold in France and begin slow, but steady push back of German forces
One of five landing sites for Overlord; American forces; most difficult of five sites; ultimately successful, but bloody
Battle of the Bulge
German-Allies battle in Belgium; Germans almost break Allied wall, but are ultimately defeated; Allied troops continue Westward march to Germany.
FDR's 4th inauguration
FDR elected to fourth term
River dividing Polish and German territory; in January Soviet troops cross Oder and enter German territory; clear sign that Germany is losing war
German concentration camp where civilians were used as slave labor, and where 3 million civilians, mostly Jews, were murdered.
Meeting site in Russian city of Yalta where FDR, Churchill and Stalin discuss the end of the war and the peace that will follow (include discussion of a new peacekeeping organization called the United Nations)
International organization comprised of all the nations of the world whose focus will be on keeping world peace
U.S.-Japan battle where U.S. achieves crucial victory (Iwo Jima considered part of Japanese home islands so sign that Japan may be nearing defeat; U.S. control gives them a base of operations from which they can bomb the Japanese home islands)
U.S. Japan battle where U.S. achieves crucial victory (prior to the war, the Philippines were jointly run by Filipinos and Americans so regaining control was a huge boost—psychologically and strategically)
Rhine is on the Western border of Japan; Allied troops now have successfully overcome German defenses on the West and the East (Oder River); the Third Reich's days are numbered.
Incendiary bombing of Tokyo
Incendiaries are jellied bombs that explode then set fire to structures and people on the ground; Tokyo, the Japanese capital, is burned almost to the ground; 89,000 Tokyo residents are killed
World's most respected scientist and German refugee who emigrated to the U.S. in the mid-1930s; he gains an audience with FDR in which he convinces the President to initiate the "Manahattan Project" designed to develop an atomic bomb for potential use against Germany; it was Einstein's understanding that German scientists were trying to develop their own atomic bomb
Secret weapon (atomic bomb)
A bomb of unprecedented explosive power and destruction
April 12, 1945
FDR dies of cerebral hemorrhage
"Self determination" (opposite of imperialism): document signed by FDR and Churchill; articulates principles he hoped would be implemented after the war ended; after the war, nations will enjoy self-determination" (or the right to choose their own rulers); as such, it calls for the end of imperialism (the rule of one people over another, like the U.S. control over the Philippines or the British control over India and Burma
Harry S. Truman
FDR's vice-president who becomes president upon FDR's death
German killing camps responsible for approximately 10 million civilian deaths., e.g. Buchenwald
bombing of cities that proved ineffective to advancing war aims because the bombing emboldened the residents to continue to support the war effort, e.g. the bombing of London inspired war production, rather than destroying morale among the citizens.
Italians (fighting on behalf of the Allies) hang their former dictator, Mussolini.
April 30, 1945, after 12 years of rule, knowing Allied forces would soon be upon him (the Soviets are entering Berlin) Hitler commits suicide
("Victory in Europe") on May 7, 1945 German military leaders surrender to General Eisenhower, commander of the joint Allied forces in Europe; unconditional surrender means there are no terms attached to the surrender.
Bunker Hill aircraft carrier
U.S. ship that Japanese pilot purposely crashes into resulting in 373 American deaths (kamikaze mission = mission where pilot kills himself while attacking the enemy)
The Trinity Test (July 16, 1945)
Alamogordo, New Mexico: successful test of the atomic bomb "more powerful than anything ever before devised by humans"
Joint Allied (U.S., China, Britain) statement to Japan -- "unconditional surrender" or face "prompt and utter destruction of the Japanese homeland"; Japanese authorities dismiss declaration and refuse to surrender; at the meeting, Truman tells Stalin about the atomic bomb (thanks to spies, Stalin already knows about the weapon)
509th Composite Group of the 313th Wing of the 21st Bombing Command of the 20th Air Force
Air force group chosen for mission to drop atomic bomb on a Japanese city.
Plane commanded by Colonel Tibbets that will drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
Colonel Paul W. Tibbets Jr.
Commander of the 509th
Nickname of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
Japanese city chosen to be the target of the atomic bomb; chosen because of its war making industries and because it is the headquarters of the 2nd Japanese Army.
Creates a fireball of unbelievable heat (4,000 degrees Celsius at its core, creates shock wave and high-speed wind, generates thermal rays that burn bodies and a mushroom cloud of debris; immediately incinerates 78,000 people and injures 100,000 (more people die later from injuries and radiation poisoning)
Japanese city targeted with the second atomic bomb; 70,000 people killed.
Takes authority away from Japanese warlords and surrenders on behalf of the Japanese people; one request: he remains head of state.
Japanese terms of surrender
Unconditional except that Emperor remains head of state.
("Victory over Japan") August 14, 1945 (Japan announces surrender; Allies win!)