Strategy of Nonviolence
This strategy was borrowed from Gandhi's peaceful protests in India. This strategy exposes injustice and forces those in power to end it. When peaceful protesters were met with violence by segregationists, the whole nation provided moral outrage because the protesters had done nothing wrong.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Started as a one day boycott for all African Americans to not take the buses that discriminated against them, and turned into a year long boycott. This was a hardship for many African Americans who depended on the bus system, but they were aided by local black churches and inspired by the recent Brown vs. Board of Education ruling. The bus system lost a lot of money from this boycott, and the success of the boycott in Montgomery led to the organization of boycotts across the country.Eventually the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
A group that organized protest activities taking place across the region of Atlanta, Georgia. Martin Luther King, Jr. was elected leader. A major cause of failure for some of their campaign's was because police failed to respond
After hearing about the idea of nonviolent protest methods, African American students began sitting at restaurant lunch counters reserved for whites. The number of people "sitting in" grew daily and attracted the national news. Sit-ins began in other cities, and while the peaceful protesters were sometimes attacked and abused, eventually their peaceful approach led to many changes in the restaurants where they sat.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
A committee formed by those who participated in the sit-ins. They saw the shift in the civil rights movement after the sit-ins and wanted more ways to peacefully protest.
Inspired by the success of the sit-ins, this group protested by riding buses through the South and using white-only waiting rooms, restrooms, and lunch counters at the stops along the way. After being beaten several times, President Kennedy sent federal marshalls protect them on their journey. Once the reached their destination, Jackson, Mississippi, they were arrested and jailed. More people continued this journey for four months, and finally a federal law was passed that forced integration of bus and train stations.
A peaceful 54-mile march to raise awareness for civil rights. Along the way, police attacked the marchers in a terrible act of violence that was televised for the whole nation to see. The Selma March can be called a success, because the following week President Johnson urged the government to pass voting rights for African American citizens.
Brown vs. Board of Education
This Supreme Court case ruled that segregating schools violated the Constitution's guarantee of equal protection of the law. Even still, many southern state governments refused to allow African American children to attend white schools. African American students brave enough to to attempt to go to white schools often had to be escorted by federal soldiers to keep them from being threated and abused.
Governor of Alabama who refused to allow African American students into state schools, despite the federal law that made it illegal to continue segregation. He believed segregation of black and white students was necessary.
Integrating higher education
Higher education means colleges and universities. Many colleges and universities continued to reject African American students, despite the ruling that segregation in schools was over. It wasn't until federal courts ordered these disobedient states to allow all students in and used military force to ensure these students' safety, that public universities began to be integrated.
De facto segregation
Segregation that exists through custom and practice, not from the law
De jure segregation
Segregation by law
J. Edgar Hoover
FBI director who who created an FBI program to infiltrate civil rights groups.
Decline of the Civil Rights Movement
Many factors led to this decline:
* Assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
* No strong leader emerged after the assassination
* FBI infiltrated many large civil rights groups
A movement that called for African Americans to rely on themselves to achieve change. This group supported a more aggressive approach than nonviolence.
Programs set up to give preference to minorities and women in hiring and admissions. These programs were designed to help make up for past discrimination against these groups of people.
Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act)
This act banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing. Because African Americans were no longer kept out of certain neighborhoods, de facto segregation (segregation by custom and practice) was largely reduced. Up until then, discrimination in housing had led to segregated areas and neighborhoods; now integration into different neighborhoods and schools was possible.
Decline of Civil Rights Movement
By the late 1960's, the movement lacked strong leadership due to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. It was also weakened by J. Edgar Hoover's attempts to infiltrate groups and turn people against each other.