The mental representation of information as a sequence of sounds.
Ex: Encoding the sound of a word as if it had been spoke.
The mental representation of information as images.
Ex: Information represented in memory as a picture.
The mental representation of an experience by its general meaning.
Ex: Information is represented by general meaning.
The process of maintaining information in memory over time.
Ex: Remembering how to pogo-stick after years of not hoping on one.
The process of recalling information stored in memory.
Ex: Remembering your phone number.
Retrieving information from memory without much effort.
Ex: Answering an essay test question or playing Jeopardy.
Retrieval aided by clues.
Ex: Multiple choice questions on a test. (Tends to be easier than recall)
Memory of an event that happened while one was present.
Ex: "I remember that..."
A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world.
Ex: "I know that..."
A type of memory containing information about how to do things.
Ex: A gymnist explaining the movements in her routine.
The process in which people intentionally try to remember something
Ex: When answering a test question, explicit memory is used to recall the correct answer.
The unintentional influence of prior experience.
Ex: Solving a puzzle faster the second time.
Levels of Processing Model
A view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed.
Ex: "How extensively is the information encoded or processed when it is first received?"
Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory.
Ex: Adding a phone number to a text message.
A memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory.
Ex: "Jim Crew" To remember his name, my Uncle Jim always wears a crew cut.
Information Processing Model
A model of memory in which information is seen as passing through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Ex: For information to become embedded in memory it must pass through sensory memory, STM, and LTM.
A type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming information very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next.
Ex: From sights, sounds, smells... the senses.
Short Term Memory
The maintenance component of working memory, which holds unrehearsed information for a limited time.
Ex: Checking the television listings then switching to the channel of the show you want to watch.
Stimuli that are perceived as one unit or as a meaningful grouping of information.
Ex: Remembering the digits of a phone number.
Immediate Memory Span
The maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items.
Ex: Number activity
A method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short term memory.
Ex: Give 3 letters then count backwards by 3's , allowing for no rehearsal time.
Long Term Memory
A relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited.
Ex: Memories that last a lifetime
Transfer-Appropriate Processing Model
A model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process matches the original encoding process.
Ex: Studying for a multiple choice test but getting a short answer style test.
Parallel Distributed Processing Model
Memory models in which new experiences change one's overall knowledge basis.
Ex: Remembering 9/11.
A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good.
Key* Primary = First
A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items in a list.
Key* Recency = Recent (Last items)
Memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is recalled.
Ex: Environment where it was learned
Memory that is aided or impeded by a person's internal state.
Ex: Emotions or influence of alcohol or drugs.
Mental representations of categories of objects, events, and people.
Ex: Hearing the word "baseball" and activating clusters of memories from the LTM.
The gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus.
Ex: Becoming less and less distinct over time.
A cause of forgetting in which new information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information already in memory.
Ex: Learning French vocabulary might make it more difficult to remember Spanish.
A cause of forgetting in which information already in memory interferes with the ability to remember new information.
Ex: Learning French vocabulary might make it more difficult to learn German next semester.
A loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injury.
Key* After the injury.
A loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury.
Key* Prior to a brain injury (Does not remember the accident)
Strategies for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it.
Ex: P.O.R.N. - Proactive - Old; Retroactive - New