invented cotton gin, completely revolutionized Southern economy, revived dependence on slave labor
a political system governed by a few people, South seen as this
The few owners of large plantations with many slaves that were at the top of a hierarchical social order.They exercised power and influence in excess of their numbers and controlled the political, economic, social life of their regions. They were new to wealth and power. only rich had over 100 slaves
Sir Walter Scott
British novelist whose romantic vision of a feudal society made him highly popular in the South
the widespread belief that the United States is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success and social mobility
Independent small farmers in the Appalachian Mountain Range, hated plantation owners and blacks, and viewed the impending Civil War as a "rich man's war, but a poor man's fight" supported the Union and Lincoln
one of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement. escaped from slavery in Maryland. he was a great thinker and speaker. published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and wrote an autobiography that was published in 1845.
N. D. Gordon
only slave trader ever executed, slave trade was supposed to stop in 1808 by constitution, many still smuggled in
deep south area that stretched from South Carolina to Georgia to the new states in the southwest frontier which had the highest concentration of slaves
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War. brother Henry, sister Catharine, father Lyman
slave that led an armed rebellion in Richmond, Virginia; failed because of informers, hanged (one name)
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
born into slavery, a prominent African American educator, he believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. revived abolition movement
movement to do away with slavery. It began in the north in the 1700's. Becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's. Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
American Colonization Society
founded in 1817, wanted to displace blacks back to Africa, recolonize in Liberia, showed that many abolitionists didn't even like blacks, wanted to get rid of them
a republic in West Africa established for former slavers, 15,000 blacks taken there over 4 decades, many didn't belong anymore as they had been "Americanized"
the capital and chief port and largest city of Liberia, named after President Monroe even though JQ Adams did most of work
a prominent abolitionist in the 1830's. He was self-educated and very outspoken, appealed to more illiterate farmers. went to LANE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY put together a group called the "Land Rebels." He and his group traveled across the Old Northwest preaching antislavery gospel. also put together a propaganda pamphlet called American Slavery As It Is.
heavily influenced Weld! An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
Two wealthy merchant brothers who helped Weld gain recognition
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society. fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. VERY RADICAL
Garrison's , An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed. circulated for about 30 years
American Anti-Slavery Society
an organization started by William Lloyd garrison whose members wanted immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans.
An orator and associate of Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer. president of the American Anti-Slavery society
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
American abolitionist and feminist. Born into slavery, she escaped in 1827 and became a leading preacher against slavery and for the rights of women.
one of few black leader's to seriously think of mass relocation of blacks to Africa, visited Niger valley to find suitable location
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery, want abolition; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
they opposed extending slavery to the western territories, included Abraham Lincoln
Nat Turner's rebellion
Bloody slave revolt in VA. "The Spirit" told him to do it. 1831 killed almost 60 whites. White militia quickly dispersed his poorly armed force. was captured and hanged. caused waver of hysteria in south
people who work in factories, barely survive, subject to the capitalist class. slaves to their machines, term south used to counter Northern hatred of slavery, said slaves were happy while factory workers were miserable
1836 ordered by the House, required all antislavery appeals to be tabled w/o debate, angered John Quincy Adams
This mob was close to killing Garrison and was against his views and those of anti slavery and abolitionism. show high tension of time
the "martyr abolitionist," He was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Alton, Illinois and was victimized repeatedly and finally killed when he tried to defend his press from attack.
Term for the South that emphasized its economic dependence on a single staple product
Slavery is a good thing because it educates, civilizes, and cares for African Americans, south emphasize this to make slavery seem more appealing
an offspring of a black and a white parent, white masters often fathered many children with slave women
southern euphemism for slavery
The group of theology students, led by Theodore Dwight Weld, who were expelled for abolitionist activity and later became leading preachers of the antislavery gospel
of a period before a war, especially the American Civil War
percent of white southerners who actually had slaves, many even less than ten, yet non slave holders most supportive of institution
This was desired by women. It was creamy white skin which acted as a status symbol, many rich southerners strive for this
romanticized view and expectation for all southern men, very feudal idea, chivalrous and honorable, often serve in military and then politics, example General Lee most popular name, perfect embodiment of ideals
Virginia Military Institute, The Citadel
two very reputable military academies in South, in Virginia and South Carolina respectively
area in which southern men would become involved with after serving in military, serve society
aka poor white trash, hillbillies, crackers, clay eaters, derogatory term for a member of the white labor class in the rural south
overwhelming major religion for southern blacks, taught to them because it preached to do hard work in order to be repaid in after life, justify slavery
slave code laws
law codes put into place in reaction to many slave rebellions, restrict slaves: no big meetings, no education, no emancipation, no leaving land, etc.
total dollar amount invested in the 4 million slaves, each one worth about $1800 which in that time expensive (same as luxury car now)
This was the specific category of thought that 90% of abolitionists belonged to. They believed that the South should be given time to adjust without slaves and give them an ultimatum. Then they thought that there should be compensation to the slave owners for slaves.
payment or whatever is given or done to make up for something, idea that some abolitionists had to repay South in order to peacefully end slavery, would have cost $2 bill, ironically Civil War cost over $15 bill!
radical abolitionists, garrisonians
immediate uncompensated end to slavery. called for a rapid end to slavery; often advocated drastic or violent action, another synonymous term
formal separation from an alliance or federation, threats of this from south, voluntarily entered union, can voluntarily leave as well
Founded in 1787 as the first colony for freed slaves by a British antislavery group. Remained a British colony for 150 years. capital is Freetown