First caliph of Islam, Muhammad's father in law, caliph means "Deputy of the Prophet",
Alfred the Great
laid the foundation for a unified England
a temple complex built in Cambodia and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.
of or relating to the African people who speak one of the Bantoid languages or to their culture; a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent; a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
Battle of Badr
key battle in early days of Islam, turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents in Mecca, God on the side of Muslims
(Hinduism) the sacred `song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic); contains a discussion between Krishna and the Indian hero Arjuna on human nature and the purpose of life
a Roman who was an early Christian philosopher and statesman who was executed for treason; Boethius had a decisive influence on medieval logic (circa 480-524)
king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814) ;conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning
City of God
Title of a book written by St. Augustine of Hippo, in 5th century A.D., prompted the barbarian sack of Rome. It stated that fortune of Rome does not depend on individual souls, but rather on the grace of God. It was crucial in preventing any more Caesars to rise again in Europe, completely separating the world of religion to heaven, stating that the world that composed of earth was to be secular. No God kings.
Leo the third
(born c. 675, -680, Germanicia, Commagene, Syria—died June 18, 741, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (717-741), who founded the Isaurian, or Syrian, dynasty, successfully resisted Arab invasions, and engendered a century of conflict within the empire by banning the use of religious images (icons)., crowned charlemagne as the roman emperor
An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
Prussian king, gained loyalty of nobles "junkers" by placing them in the army, which was the largest, best army in the world
The kingdom in West Africa that prospered because of trans-Saharan trade especially in gold; this kingdom was around at the time of Muslim control in North Africa.
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: the fifth of the Pillars of Islam.
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
The largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Sacked by Sultan Mehmed II in 1453 by the Ottoman Civilization.
Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain (483-565)
One of the few lasting centralized imperial rule after the Gupta dynasty
Known for his generosity and wiseness despite the fact that he was only 16 coming assassinated and had no heir
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Site in Anatolia where the Byzantines were devastated by Saljuq Turks. After this crippling blow, Byzantium never controlled Anatolia again.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
The kingdom of Clovis and Charles Martel spread Christianity throughout France and expanded its territories
Otto the Great
formed a close alliance with the Church. built power by gaining support of clergy. invaded Italy on pope's behalf. rewarded by being crowned emperor. created the Holy Roman Empire, which was the strongest in Europe until the 12 Century
Pepin the Short
He was Charles Martel's son and father of Charlemagne. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Period of Disunion
time of disorder that followed the collapse of the Han, cultures of the Mongol invaders and the Chinese culture combined to form a new culture
relating to or characteristic of Shintoism; noun the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma; characterized by a veneration of nature spirits and of ancestors; the native religion and former ethnic cult of Japan
Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480-547);he founded a monastery in Northern Italy in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions governing the lives of monks that was used by monasteries across Europe.
(Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian Church whose major work was his translation of the Scriptures from Hebrew and Greek into Latin (which became the Vulgate); a saint and Doctor of the Church (347-420) had a passion for ascetic life.,wrote The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary
Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Barvaria
Taika Reform Edict
a set of doctrines established by in the year 645. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku, and the defeat of the Soga clan this battle united Japan. "Great Reform".
A member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century.
William the Conqueror
the duke of Normandy, a province of France, and the leader of the Norman Conquest of England. He defeated the English forces at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and became the first Norman King of England.
a free man owning his own farm, especially from the Elizabethan era to the 17th century.
"Night of Power"
Angel Gabriel meets Muhammad on Mount Hira, gives him the words of God and orders to recite. First revelation and instruction.