Mammalogy Test II- VII

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Family Tarsiidae often grouped with what?

both strepsirhini and Haplorhini (the family is intermediate in some ways)

How many genus and species in the family Tarsiidae?

1 genus and 5 species

Where is the family Tarsiidae found?

Borneo, Sumatra, E. Indies, Phillipenes

What are the characteristics of the family Tarsiidae?

unique-small with very large forward directing eyes, head large, limbs and tail very long, limbs have elongate bones with some fusion in distal elements

What are the digits like in the family Tarsiidae?

have distal pads with nails with exception of 2nd and 3rd pedal

What are the teeth in the family Tarsiidae?

nonspecialized and upper incisors have medial pair enlarged

Is the family Tarsiidae diurnal or nocturnal?

nocturnal-

What are the characteristics of the family tarsiidae with it being nocturnal?

eyes are very large, retina lacks cones, lacks tapetum lucidum,retains fovea centralis

What are the habits and habitats of the family Tarsiidae?

occur primarily in undisturbed habitats

What kind of food does the family Tarsiidae eat?

variety of animals

What is the locomotion of the family Tarsiidae?

walking, running (often bipedal on hindlegs), leaping

Is the family Tarsidaee social?

to a limited extent, family groups and individuals with partially overalpping ranges

Which suborder is made up of the more advanced and successful mammals?

Suborder Haplorhini

What is another name of the suborder Haplorhini?

Anthropidaea

How many families are under the suborder Haplorhini and what is the suborder made up of?

5 families made up of higher primates

THe Suborder Haplorhini as a group as a whole has what characteristics?

larger, more diverse, broadly distributed (geographically), hemochorial placenta, favea centralis

What are the two major subgroups of the suborder Haplorhini?

Platyrrhini (new world) and Catarrhini (old world)

What are the families of the subgroup Platyrrhini?

Cebidae, Callithricidae

How many genera and species in the family Cebidae?

11 genera and 58 species (under the subgroup platyrrhini)

What are the characteristics of the family Cebidae?

most small but the largest is the howler monkey (The Monkey Alouatta- 9kg)

What family often recognized for the family Cebidae?

Family Atelidae

What are the limbs like in the family Cebidae?

long, digits with curved nails, pollex reduced or absent w/ no major role in grabbing, hallux present and opposable, long tail often prehensile

What is the skull like in the family Cebidae?

globular, high brain case, short rostrum, orbits anteriorly directed, pltyrrhine nostrils that face side with broad separation

What dentition in the family Cebidae?

2/2 1/1 3/3 3/3 --->most generalized with slight modifications of the molars

Cebidae diurnal or nocturnal?

diurnal

WHere does the family Cebidae live (habitat)?

live in tropical forests

What food of Cebidae?

vegetarians

What on exception of Cebidae being vegetarian?

Aotes- night monkey/ predatory

Is the family Cebidae social?

highly. ex1) howlers- troops up to 40, vocal, males have modified hyoid = amplification ex2) squirrel monkey- troops up to 100, highly arboreal, vocal

What often included as subfamily of family Cebidae?

Callithricidae

What makes up Callithricidae?

marmosets and Tamarians

# of genera/species of Callithricidae?

4g, 26s

What characteristics of Callithricidae?

squirrel like, clawed digits, no grasping or brachyation, non prehensile long tails, ornamentation of tufts and mane colors

What dentition of Callithricidae?

more primitive, cheek teeth with tritubercular pattern

What habits of Callithricidae?

form superfamily (merge ind grp into lg grp)- vocal with high pitched calls, omnivorous, male has extensive care of young

What characteristic nose of Catarrhini?

nostrils narrow and downward facing

What old world familyof Catarhinni?

Cercopithecidae

What is the largest of all primate families?

Cercopithecidae

# of genera and species in Cercopithicedae?

18genera/ 81species

Where habitat of Cercopithecidae?

nontropical habitat

WHat kind of skull for Cercopithecidae?

lg and robust with well developed ridges (sagital and occipital crests----if found you would think that it was carnivore but not), rostrum is fairly long/elongated compared to the rest of the Catarrhines

What is the dentition in Cercopithecidae?

2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3 ----> canines usually large- Molars quadritubercular & bilophondont

What hallux and pollex of Ceropithecidae?

opposable except in Colosus (pollex vestigial or absent)

The tail in the family Cercopithceidae is what?

variable (is chial callosities present in many in reproductive behavior)

What is the face like in family Cercopithceidae?

musculature well developed and very expressive

What are the subfamilies of the family Cercopithceidae?

Cercopithecines & Colobines

What are the features of Ceropithecines?

feed on nut/seed, cheek pouches, broad incisors, shorter jaw for more powerful bite, limbs equal length, many terrestrial

What does the subfamily Cercopithecines include?

Macaques, Baboons, Geldas

What are the characteristics of the Colobines?

leaf eaters, complex stomach, narrow incisors, deeper jaws & cheek teeth with high cusps, long hind legs and tail, thumbs short and absent

What is the purpose of cheek teeth with high cusps?

to create a chopping action when teeth occlude when eating leafy material

All Colobines are what?

arboreal

The Colobines include what?

Colocus (africa), Langurus (Asia), and odd nosed live in Bornea

Are the Colobines social?

yes- types vary- most have sexual morphism (males usually larger), long lived with social hiearchy of 20-25years

What is Pongidae?

family of Catarrhini

What does Pongidae include?

Gibbons & Great Apes

Where does the family Pongidae occur?

old world tropics, africa, malaysia

# of genera/ species in Pongidae?

4g, 8s

What kind of habitat for the Family Pongidae?

forest animals

What are teh sub families of Pongidae?

Hylobatinae & Ponginae, (sometimes Hominidae)

What is the subfamily Hylobatinae?

Gibbons (most speacilized arboreals)--- extensive use of brachyation (hanging or swinging from branch to branch using arms)

What are the characterisitics of Hylobatinae?

forelimbs are long, digits are long, slender and curved "hook", skull has large orbits protruding at rims

Where does the subfamily Hylobatinae occur?

southeast asia (India-china + islands)

The subfamily Ponginae has what # genera and species?

3genera/ 4 species

What are the characteristics of the subfamily Ponginae?

larger, more robust, not as arboreal, opposable hallux & pollex

The subfamily Ponginae inludes what?

Orangutan, chimp, gorilla

What is the dentition of subfamily Ponginae like?

like man- 2/2 1/1 2/2 3/3 - incisors usually broad (dif from human), canines often large (slightly dif in human), cheek teeth are quadrangular (4 cusps)

What are the body characteristics of Ponginae?

forelimbs are longer than hind, tails absent, develop upright stance, largely terrestrial

What type of food does the subfamily Ponginae eat?

they are vegetarians with some carnivory in the chimps, some canabalism (rare)

What are the habits of the subfamily Ponginae?

behavior and intelligence highly developed

What is Hominidae?

subfamily of Pongidae- usually included with subfamily Ponginae

What characteristics of Hominidae?

inflated brain case, enlarged cerebral cortex, greatly reduced rostrum, ventral opening of foramen magnum, reduction in massiveness of teeth & skull & jaw bones, shift in bipedal scapula more on back, loss of opposable thumb, lengthening of metatarsals, rigid fusion of pelvis to vert column

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