V. /拥护/support militantly. Martin Luther King, Jr., won the Nobel Peace Prize because he championed the oppressed in their struggle for equality.
ADJ. /混乱/in utter disorder. He tried to bring order into the chaotic state of affairs. chaos, N.
N. /魅力/divine gift; great popular charm or appeal of a political leader Political commentators have deplored the importance of a candidate's charisma in these days of tele¬vision campaigning.
N. /吹牛/quack; pretender to knowledge. When they realized that the Wizard didn't know how to get them back to Kansas, Dorothy and her companions were indignant that they'd been duped by a charlatan.
ADJ. /谨慎；吝啬/cautious; sparing or restrained about giving. A prudent, thrifty, New Englander, DeWitt was as chary of investing money in junk bonds as he was chary of paying people unnecessary compliments.
N. /深渊/abyss. They could not see the bottom of the chasm.
N. /底盘/framework and working parts of an automobile. Examining the car after the accident, the owner discovered that the body had been ruined but that the chassis was unharmed.
ADJ. /纯的/pure. Her chaste and decorous garb was appropriately selected for the solemnity of the occasion. chastity, N.
V. /磨练/discipline; punish in order to correct. Whom God loves, God chastens.
V. /惩罚/punish. I must chastise you for this offense.
N. /盲目爱国主义/blindly devoted patriot. A chauvinist cannot recognize any faults in his country, no matter how flagrant they may be. Likewise, a male chauvinist cannot recognize his bias in favor of his own sex, no matter how flagrant that may be. chauvinistic,ADJ.
V. /控制；阻止/stop motion; curb or restrain. Thrusting out her arm, Grandma checked Bobby's lunge at his sister. "Young man," she said, "you'd better check your temper." (sec¬ondary meaning)
ADJ. /多变的；像国际象棋棋盘一样的方格/marked by changes in fortune. During his checkered career he had lived in palatial mansions and in dreary boardinghouses.
ADJ. /天真无邪/angelic; innocent-looking. With her cheerful smile and rosy cheeks, she was a particularly cherubic child.
N. /强辩，狡辩；欺骗/trickery; deception. Those sneaky lawyers misrepresented what occurred, made up all sorts of implau¬sible alternative scenarios to confuse the jurors, and in gen¬eral depended on chicanery to win the case.
V. /斥责/scold. Grandma began to chide Steven for his lying.
ADJ. /不现实，空想/fantastically improbable; highly unrealistic; imaginative. As everyone expected, Ted's chimerical scheme to make a fortune by raising ermines in his back yard proved a dismal failure.
N. /凿子/wedgelike tool for cutting. With his hammer and chisel, the sculptor chipped away at the block of marble.
V. /欺骗/swindle or cheat; cut with a chisel. That crook chiseled me out of a hundred dollars when he sold me that "marble" statue he'd chiseled out of some cheap hunk of rock.
ADJ. /勇敢；诚实/courteous; faithful; brave. Chivalrous behavior involves noble words and good deeds.
ADJ. /易发怒的；脾气坏/hot-tempered. His flushed, angry face indi¬cated a choleric nature.
N. /舞蹈术；舞蹈记谱/art of representing dances in written symbols; arrangement of dances. Merce Cunningham has begun to use a computer in designing choreography. a software program allows him to compose arrangements of possible moves and immediately view them onscreen.
V. /得意的笑/chuckle with delight. When she heard that her rival had just been jailed for embezzlement, she chortled with joy. She was not a nice lady.
ADJ. /慢性的/long established as a disease. The doctors were finally able to attribute his chronic headaches and nausea to traces of formaldehyde gas in his apartment.
V. /编年史/report; record (in chronological order). The gossip columnist was paid to chronicle the latest escapades of the socially prominent celebrities. also N.
ADJ. /粗鲁的/boorish; rude. Dismayed by his churlish map¬ners at the party, the girls vowed never to invite him again.
N. /密码/secret code. Lacking his code book, the spy was unable to decode the message sent to him in cipher.
N. /不重要的人或物/nonentity; worthless person or thing. She claimed her ex-husband was a total cipher and wondered why she had ever married him.
ADJ. /迂回的/roundabout. To avoid the traffic congestion on the main highways, she took a circuitous route. circuit, N.
N. /婉转曲折的表达/indirect or roundabout expression. He was afraid to call a spade a spade and resorted to circum¬locutions to avoid direct reference to his subject.
V. /限制/limit; confine. Although I do not wish to cir¬cumscribe your activities, I must insist that you complete this assignment before you start anything else.
ADJ. /慎重；周到/prudent; cautious. Investigating before acting, she tried always to be circumspect.
V. /智取；包围/outwit; baffle. In order to circumvent the enemy, we will make two preliminary attacks in other sec¬tions before starting our major campaign.
N. /水塔；水库/reservoir or water tank. The farmers were able to withstand the dry season by using rainwater they had stored in an underground cistern.
N. /大本营/fortress. The citadel overlooked the city like a protecting angel.
V. /引用；掌握/quote; command. She could cite passages in the Bible from memory. citation, N.
ADJ. /民事的；国民的/having to do with citizens or the state; courteous and polite. Although Internal Revenue Service agents are civil servants, they are not always civil to suspected tax cheats.
ADJ. N. /预知；预言者/having foresight; fortuneteller. Cassan¬dra's clairvoyant warning was not heeded by the Trojans. clairvoyance, N.
V. /爬/climb by crawling. She clambered over the wall.
N. /吵闹声；噪音/noise. The clamor of the children at play outside made it impossible for her to take a nap. alsoV.
ADJ. /秘密/secret. After avoiding their chaperon, the lovers had a clandestine meeting.
N. /大声喧哗；持续的铿锵声/loud, resounding noise. The blacksmith was accustomed to the clangor of hammers on steel.
N. /铃舌，钟舌/striker (tongue) of a bell. Wishing to be undis¬turbed by the bell, Dale wound his scarf around the clapper to muffle the noise of its striking.
N. /扣合；紧密合作/fastening device; firm grip. When the clasp on Judy's bracelet broke, Fred repaired it, bending the hook back into shape. He then helped her slip on the bracelet, holding it firm in the sure clasp of his hand.
N. /幽闭恐怖症/fear of being locked in. His fellow class¬mates laughed at his claustrophobia and often threatened to lock him in his room.
V. /劈开；黏着；忠于/split or sever; cling to; remain faithful to. With her heavy cleaver, Julia Child can cleave a whole roast duck in two. Soaked through, the soldier tugged at the uniform that cleaved annoyingly to his body. He would cleave to his post, come rain or shine.
N. /裂缝；开裂/split. Trying for a fresh handhold, the mountain¬climber grasped the edge of a cleft in the sheer rockface. alsoADJ.
N. /温和；仁慈/disposition to be lenient; mildness, as of the weather. The lawyer was pleased when the case was sent to Judge Smith's chambers because Smith was noted for her clemency toward first offenders.
V. /牢牢抓住/close tightly; grasp. "Open wide," said the den¬tist, but Clint clenched his teeth even more tightly than before.
N. /陈词滥调/phrase dulled in meaning by repetition. High school compositions are often marred by such clichés as "strong as an ox."
N. /常客/body of customers. The rock club attracted a young, stylish clientele.
ADJ. /顶点的，高潮的/relating to the highest point. When he reached the climactic portions of the book, he could not stop reading. climax, N.
N. /地域；气候/region; climate. His doctor advised him to move to a milder clime.
N. /剪辑/section of filmed material. Phil's job at Fox Sports involved selecting clips of the day's sporting highlights for later broadcast. alsoV.
N. /小圈子；同行/small exclusive group. Fitzgerald wished that he belonged to the clique of popular athletes and big men on campus who seemed to run Princeton's social life.
N. /修道院/monastery or convent. The nuns lived a secluded life in the cloister.
N. /巨大的影响（政治\社会）/great influence (especially political or social). Gatsby wondered whether he had enough clout to be admitted to the exclusive club.
ADJ. /倒胃口；过度的/distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental. Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom chose to have homemade carrot cake at the reception. cloy,V.
N. /一块，一团；沉重的脚步声；草丛，灌木丛/cluster or close group (of bushes, trees); mass; sound of heavy treading. Hiding behind the clump of bushes, the fugitives waited for the heavy clump of the sol¬diers' feet to fade away.
V. /凝结/thicken; congeal; clot. Even after you remove the pudding from the burner, it will continue to coagulate as it stands; therefore, do not overcook the pudding, lest it become too thick.
V. /接合/combine; fuse. The brooks coalesce into one large river. When minor political parties coalesce, their coa¬lescence may create a major coalition.
N. /伙伴；同盟，集合/partnership; league; union. The Rainbow Coalition united people of all races in a common cause.
V. /娇养，溺爱/to treat gently. Don't coddle the children so much; they need a taste of discipline.
N. /遗嘱的附录/supplement to the body of a will. Miss Havisham kept her lawyers busy drawing up codicils to add to her already complicated will.
V. /编纂/arrange (laws, rules) as a code; classify. We need to take the varying rules and regulations of the different health agencies and codify them into a national health code.
N. /威逼，强迫/use of force to get someone to obey. The inquisitors used both physical and psychological coercion to force Joan of Arc to deny that her visions were sent by God. coerce,V.
ADJ. /有说服力的/convincing. It was inevitable that David chose to go to Harvard: he had several cogent reasons for doing so, including a full-tuition scholarship. Katya argued her case with such cogency that the jury had to decide in favor of her client.
V. /考虑/think over. Cogitate on this problem; the solu¬tion will come.
ADJ. /同源的/related linguistically: allied by blood: similar or akin in nature. The English word "mother" is cognate to the Latin word "mater," whose influence is visible in the words "maternal" and "maternity." also N.
ADJ. /认知的/having to do with knowing or perceiving; related to the mental processes. Though Jack was emotion¬ally immature, his cognitive development was admirable; he was very advanced intellectually.
N. /认知/knowledge. During the election campaign, the two candidates were kept in full cognizance of the inter¬national situation.
V. /粘住的/stick together. Solids have a greater tendency to cohere than liquids.
N. /内聚力；黏度/tendency to keep together. A firm believer in the maxim "Divide and conquer," the evil emperor, by means of lies and trickery, sought to disrupt the cohesion of the federation of free nations.
N. /发型/hairstyle. You can make a statement with your choice of coiffure: in the sixties many African¬Americans affirmed their racial heritage by wearing their hair in Afros.
V. /铸币；发明；杜撰/make coins; invent or fabricate. Mints coin good money; counterfeiters coin fakes. Slanderers coin nasty rumors; writers coin words. A neologism is an expression that's been newly-coined.
N. /巧合/two or more things occurring at the same time by chance. Was it just a coincidence that John and she had chanced to meet at the market for three days run¬ning, or was he deliberately trying to seek her out? coinci¬dental,ADJ.
N. /过滤器/utensil with perforated bottom used for strain¬ing. Before serving the spaghetti, place it in a colander to drain it.