the level of organization that includes atoms and molecules of the human body. (DNA, RNA)
The level of organization that includes many types of cells and includes plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
The level of organization that is made up of a certain types of cells. Includes connective and nervous
The level of organization that is a collection of tissues which performs a function needed for the human body to survive
The level of organization that is a group of organs which carryout a more complete set of functions
The level of organization that has the 11 body systems work together
Towards the head, top, or above
away from the head, bottom, or below
toward the midline
away from the midline
closer to the point of origin or attachment
further away from the point of origin or attachment
toward the front
toward the back
same side of the midline
opposite sides of the midline
means toward the surface
means towards the core
surface closest to the cavity wall
surface closest to the organ inside the cavity
divides body into two equal halves
divides body, but not through the midline
dividing superior from inferior
dividing anterior from posterior
What cavity includes the cranial and vertebral subdivisions
What cavity includes the plueral, pericardial, and mediastinum.
_____ surrounds a lung
______ surrounds the heart
central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from the sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphrgm; contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
This is the inferior portion of the ventral body cavity; subdivided into abdominal, and pelvic cavity
This subdivision contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most large intestine; the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum
This subdivision contains the urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction
Negatively charged, small particles give the atom its chemical charge. Surround nucleus of atom. Mass=0.0005
positively charged, large particles. Found only when atoms break apart (nucluear fission). Part of the nucleus. Mass=1.007
No charge, large particles. Part of the nucleus. Mass=1.009
When the number of neutrons varies, we call these _____ of the element. This changes the atomic mass.
______ ____ result when atoms share electrons. Come in single, double, triple, 4, and polar. These are the strongest bonds
Ex. two hydrogen atoms share both of the electrons they hold in common
_____, _____, and _____ are common atoms in the human body that typically form polar covalent bonds
Oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
_____ _____ results when atoms remain as charged ions that stay associated based on their charge. Second strongest bonds.
Ex. Na+ and Cl- form NaCl
________ _____ are a special characteristic of compounds that contain hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, and hydrogen and sulfur. These are the weakest of the bonds.
A substance which dissolves in water, releasing H+ as a cation (positive ion) and some anion (negative ion)
A substance that dissolves in water, releasing any cation (positive ion) and OH- as an anion (negative ion)
weak acids and weak bases are important components of a special type of solution called a ______, which is a substance which acts as a "sponge" to hold and inactivate H+ and/or OH-
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. That is either acidic, neutral, or alkaline (basic).
this is used to add fatty acids to a glycerol backbone
used to break down fatty acids off of a glycerol backbone "water breaking"
A hydrophobic substance that have several important biological functions.
_____ _____ are the basic building blocks of lipids. They are made up of long chain molecules rich in carbon and hydrogen.
When a long chain fatty acid is added onto a glycerol molecule by dehydration synthesis, a ____________ is formed
replacing on of the three long fatty acid chains in a triglyceride with a phosphorus-containing group gives rise to a ____________
_____ _____ come in many different varieties. The carbon backbones vary from 4 to 20 carbons strung end-to-end, and with hydrogens filling the unused bonds on the carbon atoms.
_________ fatty acids are those where all the carbons are filled with hydrogen atoms.
A double bonded carbon resulting in one kink in the regular zigzag pattern
many double bonds resulting in multiple kinks
the order in which amino acids are strung together with peptide bonds
protein primary structure
how the primary structure may be twisted or folded. either a-helix (coils) B-pleated sheets ex. hair
protein secondary structure
proteins are formed when seperate chains, or different a-helices, or other parts of chains are joined together into a larger, folded structure.
protein tertiery structure
two or more subunits, each with its own primary, secondary, and tertiery structure combined together.
protein quaternary structure
disruption of the interactions, and unfold a protein, leaving only the primary structure intact.
proteins that speed up (catalyze) chemical reactions chemical reactions either absorb or release energy. These end in -ase and are specific
A subcellular compartment component called a mitochondrian, oxygen, and glucose are converted to cellular energy which is then stored as high-energy phosphate bonds in a molecule.
Lipids consist of _____ ____ ______(i.e. hydrophilic, water soluble) with ___-_____ _____ (i.e. hydrophobic, fat soluble)
polar head groups, non-polar tails
Lipids arrange themselves into two layers, with the head groups facing _____________ and intracellular solutions and with the lipid tails forming a layer between.
lipids can move ____-__-____, but never flip from the outside to the inside or vise-versa
________ are embedded in the lipid "sea" and are free to float around side-to-side, but like the lipids, these never flip over.
_________ membrane proteins are loosely associated with the cell membrane and lie either completely on the outside or completely on the inside of the cell.
________ (transmembrane) proteins span the cell membrane from outside to inside the cell.
____________ tells us how easily a substance can cross the plasma membrane.
How easily do these substances pass through the plasma membrane: Gases pass ______, Small, fat soluble molecules pass ___ ______, Charged ions (K+, Na+, Ca++, HPO4+-, etc), large, water-soluble molecules (eg. proteins) _____ ____
easily, less easily, don't pass
Molecules in gas or liquid can move around in a random movement. over time the concentration of the substance will become equal in all parts of the system.
used to move a substance such as glucose down its concentration gradient
diffusion of solvents across a semi-permeable membrane. For us, there's only one solvent:water
diffusion moves substances fromo areas of high concentration to low. No energy needed.
Ex. glucose because?
Ex.glucose concentration is high outside the cell and low inside. The cell needs glucose, glucose "wants" to move from the outside to inside. IT CAN'T. The non-polar lipid tails in the membrane repel large, water-soluble molecules like glucose. A protein glucose carrier facilitates the diffusion of glucose.
diffusion results because of entropy to overcome entropy, energy input is required.
Ex. ATP, pre-existing storage of enerfy in a concentration gradient.
Two ions move in opposite directions to drive the pump
a molecule and an ion move in the same direction to drive the pump
The ____________ is to the cell as the human skeleton is to the body structural proteins needed to move substances around the cell, as well as to move the cell around in the environment. They are classified by size (smallest to largest) they are: _____________, ____________ ________, or ____________
cytoskeleton, microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
_________ are the site of protein synthesis.
Ribosomes are a combination of a particular subtype of RNA, called ____, plus proteins.
ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA)
Ribosomes are also found as part of the organelle known as ___. This is a collection of membrane bags with ribosomes arranged all along the outside
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
Ribosomes use another type of RNA, called ______ ___ as the instruction sheet and _____ ___ as the carrier for the raw materials of proteins (amino acids).
messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA)
The ______ ________ ______ is several different organelles with similar appearance, so that they cannot be distinguished in electron micrographs of the cell. Functions include _______, ______, _______
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), synthesis, storage, digestion.
The _____ _______ recieves unprocessed proteins from the RER and modifies them into their final form.
_________, is the buildup of smaller molecules into large ones. These reactions consume ATP and release waste energy as heat
_________, is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones. These reactions create ATP and also release waste energy.
the process of anaerobic metabolism of glucose is __________ ("sugar breaking") One glucose molecule is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Four ATP's are made, but 2 are consumed, for a net gain of 2 ATP's per glucose.
If oxygen is absent or in short supply, then cellular respiration is _________. Then the hexose (6-carbon) glucose is converted to 2 lactates at 3 carbons each.
If oxygen is present, the _______ respiration can take place. Then the hexose glucose is converted to 2 pyruvates at 3 carbons each.
In the Krebs cycle FADH+ grabs a ______ (H+) and two _________ and becomes FADH2, FADH2 releases the same things and becomes FADH+ again. NAD+ grabs a ______ (H+) and two ________ and becomes NADH, NADH releases the same things and becomes NAD+ again.
proton, electron, proton, electron
As electrons are stripped from hydrogen atoms, protons are created and pumped inot the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane. These protons (H+) then are allowed to run down the concentration gradient to drive ATP synthesis. Symport used to make ATP, mitochondria turn potential (stored) energy into ATP.
electron transport chain
A ____ is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein.
The edited version of the RNA made from a DNA template is called _________ ___
DNA being made into RNA
___________ changes the language of the ribosome. ____ carries the coded message. ____ with proteins, forms ribosomes small and large subunits. ____ "trucks" to bring amino acids to the growing protein stand
translation, mRNA, rRNA, tRNA
A _____ has three base pairs on the mRNA coding for an amino acid.
An _________ has one end of the molecule that lines up with the mRNA codon
Name the 5 steps of translation:
1.Ribosome attached to mRNA
2.AUG start codon matches up wo tRNA-methionine
3.Next tRNA-amino acid arrives
4.Peptide bonds form
5.Ribosomes shifts three mRNA bases
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase are all part of the _______ _____ where the parent cell produces identical cells with identical chromosomes
The phase where the cell is metabolically active; duplicates organelles and cystolic components; centrosome replication begins
The phase where DNA is replicated
The phase where cell growth continuesl enzymes and other proteins are synthesized; centrosome replication completed.
G0 phase is the phase where ____ ___ __ ___ ____ occurs
exit from the cell cycle
________ genes, those where inheriting one copy will give you a condition or disease.
_________ genes, those where inheriting one copy makes you a carrier and inheriting two copies will give you a condition or disease.
Ex. in albinism
AA=_________ , aa=________ _____, Aa=________ _______
Recessive, unaffected, affected albino, unaffected carrier
spherical bacterial cells are called?
rod-shaped bacteria are called?
some bacilli shapes are in betweem cocci and bacilli, are oval in shape and may be referred to as?
this bacteria is long, thin, coiled, rod-shaped cells that divide into two sub-groups. The _______ are either loosely-coiled or wavy. The ________, in contrast are tightly coiled, corkscrew-shaped rods
organisms gearing up, not greatly increasing in number but they are metabolically active
once bacteria have adapted to their nutrient-rich environment, growth is exponential (logarithmic)
the number of new cells produced is the same as the number of cells dying
the number of cells dying is greater than the number of new cells arising from division
In this symbiotic relationship, both members of association benefit.
In this symbiotic relationship one organism, the parasite, benefits from the relationship and the other organism, the host, is harmed
In this symbiotic relationship, on organism benefits and the other neither benefits or is harmed.
This is a obligate intracellular organism, requires eukaryotic cell to replicate. Ex. trachoma, STD's, conjuctiva
This is a obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle. Transmitted by vector (lice, ticks, fleas). Ex. rocky mountain spotted fever
this is the tiniest free-living organism. they are unique in the bacteria world because they don't have a cell wall. Ex. primary atypical pneumonia
this must replicate within a host cell. provides RNA or DNA to replicate, and the host cells provide the energy and resources. Contain either RNA or DNA (not both)
What is the protective coat enveloping the nucleic acid in a viral structure it also determines the shape of the virus.
this is present in some viruses external to the capsid, may have glycoprotein spikes-it determines host cell specifity, and may hide virus from host's immune system
The five steps in the viral replication are:
In viral replication the attachment of the virus to the host cell is called?
In viral replication the process by which the virus enters the host cell.
In viral replication the process that produces new genetic material and varies between the RNA and DNA viruses
In viral replication the assembly, or "packaging" of the newly synthesized molecules into complete virions.
In viral replication the departure of the virions from the host cell. It is this final cycle of viral reproduction that may cause symptoms in the host.
In this type of infection the disease cycle is relatively short, the host cell ruptures and virus spreads to neighboring cells.
In this type of infection the virus becomes relatively inactive but reemerges, replicates new virions when triggered by some external event (stress, fever, etc).
In treating a viral infection ________ are ineffective, _______ ____ slow down attachment of virus to host cell and supress but do no cure the infection, and _______ such as gardisil
antibiotics, antiviral drugs, vaccines
these two fungi types are multicellular. and begin as spores
molds and mushrooms
this type of fungi is unicellular and they diverse in nature such as bread, beer, and alcohol. and causes thrush and vaginitis
In this single-celled parasitic organism called a ______ there are stages: _________ stage which is the motile, invasive form of the organism, and a ____ stage is somewhat analogous to the spores found in many bacteria and is the infectious stage found in soil and water.
protozoa , trophozoite, cyst
this parasitic organism has four groups: flukes, tapeworms, roundworm, and the tissue parasites.
Hosts that harbor the parasite when it reproduces by sexual reproduction
Hosts that harbor the parasite at some development stage in its life cycle
Hosts that are not part of the normal life cycle of the infectious parasite.
What are the four types of tissues found in the human body?
cells are in a single layer, and all are in contact with the basement membrane.
cells appear to have layers, every one is in contact with the basement membrane.
cells have layers, only lowest layer is in contact with the basement membrane.
cells are flat and shaped like fish scales. wider than they are tall
cells are as wide as they are tall, like little ice cubes.
cells are like a column, taller than they are wide
this type of gland secretes substances into extracellular fluid, then blood.
this type of gland secretes substances outside of the body.
_______ secretion- released (exocytosis)
_______ secretion-(apple tree-falling down) end of cells break off and dissolves
_______ secretion-(holocaust) cell dies, releases product. Lost cell replaced by division of stem cells.
_______ _____ is made up of three parts: fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycans.
______ _____ are made up of collagen and comes in many types (type I, type II, up to type XXIX
______ _____ are made up of elastin and are abundant in tissues that need to stretch and then snap back
_______ _____ are made up of type III collagen
this cell type found in connective tissue is the most numerous connective tissue cell
this cell type found in connective tissue is the fat cells
this cell type found in connective tissue is important in inflammation
this cell type found in connective tissue includes the immune cells
white blood cells
this cell type found in connective tissue eat debris or invaders
this cell type found in connective tissue develop from a type of white blood cell and secrete a protein called an antibody that helps attack invaders
_____ _____ are the ziploc bags of the tissue world. they form a tight, leakproof seal between two or more cells where substances cannot be allowed to percolate between cells.
this type of juntion uses a protein called cadherin, these junctions work like a belt to keep the tissues' pants from falling down.
this type of junction are used as "spot welds" to hold tissue together against mechanical disruption.
this type of junction is half a desmosome they are found not between a cell and its basement membrane. A protein called integrin is used to link to the basement membrane
this type of junction serves as an electrical and biochemical link between two cells.
A _____ membrane lines the exterior surfaces of the body (ex.digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts)
_____ membranes lines cavities with no opening
______ membrane is the (i.e. integument or skin)
epithelial + connective tissue = ______ ________
membrane that consists of only connective tissue is called a _______ membrane
name the five layers of the epidermis from superficial to deep and describe briefly
stratum corneum-horn like, stratum lucidum-clear, stratum granulosum-grainy, stratum spinosum-spiny, stratum basale-layer from which all others regenerate
________ ____, is the skins version of a type of immune cell called a dendritic cell
the rarest epidermal cell is the _____ ___, a type of nervous system cell that detects light touch
these cells carry melanin, pigment granules that give skin color
Almost everyone has the same number of _________; where people differ in skin color is the amount of pigment in each melanocyte.
three types of skin pigment: ________ (yellow to red), ______ (brown to black), ______ (orange)
pheomelanin, eumelanin, carotene
the superficial portion of the dermis that consists of areolar connective tissue with thin collagen and fine elastic fibers is called the _______ ____ and is about 1/5. houses capillaries, meissner corpuscles, and free nerve endings
ther deeper portion of the dermis that consists of dense irregular connective tissue with bundles of thick collagen and some coarse elastic fibers is called the _______ _____ and is 4/5. spaces between fibers contain some adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and suderiferous glands.
subcutaneous tissue is a _____ connective tissue made up of ______ and adipose tissues
this sensory receptor is a light touch receptor (touch)
this sensory receptor is also a light touch receptor (tactile)
this sensory receptor is a pain and temperature, itch, hair movement.
free nerve endings
this sensory receptor is for deep pressure and vibrations
superficial wounds are defined as those that do not penetrate the ________
Deep wounds penetrate _____ ______
In a first-degree burn, only the _______ is involved
in a second-degree, the heat energy penetrates deeply and both the ______ and _____ are damaged
epidermis and dermis
this burn destroys all layers of the skin
Name the four types of cells found in bone and what they do.
1.osteogenic cell:precursor to other cell types
3.osteocyte:maintains bone tissue
osteoclast:breaks down bone
_______ ____ gives bones its strength, it is dense tissue that provides structural support
______ ____ is found in the marrow cavity of long bones like the femur. Made up of trabeculae
______ hormone stimulates osteoclasts
_______ stimulates osteoblasts
___ blood [Ca++]-->parathyroid releases _______ ____(PTH)-->PTH stimulates _______-->calcium is _______ from bone-->blood [Ca++] returns to normal and PTH release stops
Low, parathyroid hormone, osteoclasts, released
____ blood [Ca++]-->thyroid releases ______-->calcitonin stimulates _______-->calcium is _____ in bone-->blood [Ca++] returns to normal and calcitonin release stops
high, calcitonin, osteoblasts, deposited
_____ _____ are about as long as they are wide; that is, they are shaped like a wooden block or a lego. The carpal bones of the wrist and the tarsal bones in the ankle are this shape
____ _____ are the bone equivalent of squamous cells: they are wide and thin. The sternum is this type of bone
_________ _____ are a garbage category for bones that don't have any definable shape. An example would be the vertebrae
A ________ ____ is a small, round, flat bone that can arise as the result of traume to muscle. The only bone of this type in the body is the patella
ribs 1-7 are classified as ____ ____
ribs 8-10 are classified as _____ ____
ribs 11 and 12 are classified as ________ ____
name how many vertebrae are in each column of
____________ joints are not capable of functional movement. The structural classification of this would be _______ which is a band of dense irregular connective tissue that connects two bones, or bone to tooth.
Ex.This is what holds the bones of the skull
______________ joints are slightly moveable. The structural classification of this would be _____________ which has no synovial cavity, bones held together by cartilage.
Ex. between the ribs and sternum
___________ joints are fully moveable. The structural classification of this would be ________ which has a synovial cavity present.
Ex. knee joint
There are four key features of a synovial joint, they are: _____ (two or more articulating bones), _________ _________ (hyaline cartilage lining joint surface), _____ _______ (fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid), _____ (fluid-filled sacs near joint that help reduce friction between tendons and bone)
bones, articular cartilage, joint capsule, bursa
This muscle is under voluntary control, it is striated, it moves body at joints, multiple cells fuse to form long muscle fibers, so it has multiple, eccentric nuclei.
This muscle is found only in the heart, not under voluntary control, striated appearence like skeletal intercalated discs, and a branched structure
This muscle is not striated it is single celled, and has a central nucleus, not under voluntary control, mostly used in the arteries and gut tube
A _____ is a group of highly organized myosin and actin molecules
The __________ _______ help the electrical potentials rapidly penetrate into the core of the myofibril
transverse tubules (T tubules)
The ____________ _________ is a specialized form of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which stores calcium ions and releases them when needed.
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
_ ____:myosin thick filaments only
_ ____:myosin adn myosin+actin
_ ____:actin thin filaments only
_ _____:where the actin thin filaments are linked; forms borders of sarcomere
this is the point of contact between the nervous system and the muscular system
In the _____ ______, the action potential travels from the spinal cord to the muscle, using the axon of the nerve cell to make the journey. When it gets to the end of the axon-the axon terminal-the action potential triggers the release of acetylcholine (ACh)
In the _____________ _______ an impulse triggers release of ACh. ACh diffuses across the space between nerve and muscle cell, triggering muscle cell action potential (this eventually causes Ca++ release from stores in muscle). Action potential travels along muscle surface (ACh removed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE))
calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to a protein called _______, it changes shape, and pushes another specialized protein ___________ which covers a myosin binding sire on the actin molecule
These series of events are referred to
1.Calcium binds to thin filaments exposing actin active site
2.Myosin heads react to actin active site, creating srossbridges
3.Myosin head bends toward H zon, pulling actin and Z disk inward
4.Myosin head picks up fresh ATP, drops actin, and resets to again form crossbridges
The place where a muscle "begins" where it attaches to a relatively immoveable point
The place where a mucsle "ends" where it attaches to a moveable part
What the muscle does when it contracts
The muscle that does most of the work in the action being discussed.
Prime mover (agonist)
this type of muscle opposes the action of the agonist
this muscle helps the agonist muscle do its job
this type of muscle are muscles which stabilize the origin of the muscle to make agonist more effective.
_______ information is received in the internal or external environment and through a process called transduction, converted to a form the nervous system can use. This is equivalent to afferent
The __________ _______ system includes cranial nerves, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexi, and sensory receptors.
Peripheral nervous system
Information is processed by the control center, namely the _______ _______ system. Which includes both the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent information flows out to what?
_________ nervous system are those that are controlled automatically. Which encounters the ganglia and nerves. Then, the info passes through one or several neurons of the ANS to the effectors:smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands
The autonomic nervous system is further divided into ___________ and _______________
_______ nervous system are those that we control consciously. This begins in cerebral and cerebellar cortex and passes through axons to the spinal cord. There, contacts between nerve cells (synapse) relay the info to the alpha motor neurons, it is here which make contact with skeletal muscle at the neuromuscular junction.
What are the two cell types of the nervous system and describe characteristics
Neurons= nerve cells: thinking cells of the brain,
Glia= Glial cells: major role in support and nutrition of the brain.
this glial cell type of the CNS form the pia mater, a thin membrane covering the brain, with endothelial cells of capillaries, form BBB which keeps certain substances out of the CNS, "sponge up" excess ions and toxins.
this glial cell type of the CNS form myelin sheaths which insulate nerve axons that must send info over long distances.
this glial cell type of the CNS are the brains equivalent of monocytes so they are immune cells
this glial cell type of the CNS make fluid this cell type line ventricles and make cerebrospinal fluid
_________ is the point at which depolarization will trigger an action potential
All voltage gated Na+ and K+ channels are closed. There is a small buildup of negative charges along inside surface of membrane and an equal buildup of positive charges along outside of membrane
When membrane potential of acon reaches threshold. the Na+ channel activation gates open. As Na+ ions move through these channels into the neuron, a buildup of positive charges forms along inside surface of membrane and the membrane becomes ___________.
Na+ channel inactivation gates close and K+ channels open. The membrane starts to become _________ at some K+ ions leave the neuron and a few negative charges begin to buildup along the inside surface of the membrane
K+ outflow continues. As more K+ ions leave the neuron, more negative charges build up along inside surface of the membrane K+ outflow eventually restores resting membrane potential. Na+ channel inactivation gates open, return to resting state when K+ gates close
when firing an action potential is impossible, it is called ________ _________ ______
absolute refractory period
Fill in the blanks of the chemical synapse:
1. ______ _________ arrives at synaptic end bulb.
2.____ enters presynaptic terminal (this always enters)
3.____ interacts with synaptic vesicles; they move to, and fuse with, the presynaptic membrane.
4________________ is released from vesicles and binds to post-synaptic transmitter receptor.
5.the receptor protein undergoes a change in shape that allows ____ to flow.
6.ion flow results in a ____-________ ________ (PSP)
This is mostly in dendrites and cell body, ligand-gated channels, mechanically-gated channels, decrement in space and time, long duration, hyperpolarizing (IPSP)
no refractory period, moves in all directions, summation
This is mostly in axons, voltage-gated channels, all-or-none, about 1 msec, always same curve, refractory period, moves in one direction, no summation
neurotransmitters catagorized as amino acids are:_________, _______, _________
glutamate, glycine, aspartate
neurotransmitters catagorized as modified amino acids are:_-_________ ___ (GABA), ___________, _________, ________, ________
7-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin
neurotransmitters catagorized as polypeptides also known as neuropeptide are: _______ _, ________, ________, _______, _______, _______.
Substance P, enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins, angiotensin II, cholecystokinin
_________:cells that signalling themselves.
_________:cells signalling neighbors.
_________:cells signalling distant targets.
All info from the brain to the body (_____) goes through the ______ ____
motor, spinal cord
All info from the body to the brain (_______) goes through the ______ ____
sensory, spinal cord
White matter in the spinal cord contains ascending (_______) and descending (_____) tracts.
Gray matter is where ______ ___________ (including reflex) is processed
The _________ horn processes sensory information
The ________ horn contains cell bodies of neurons which control the voluntary muscles
The central nervous system is enclosed in a three-layered bad called the ________. The outermost of these is called the ____ _____, with an _________ _____ between the spinal cord and the ____. This bad is filled with ___
The adult spinal cord extends from the _______ ______ to about __ or __
foramen magnum, L1 or L2
the spinal cord ends in a bundle of nerves called the _____ ______. This allows the clinician to withdraw CSF in a procedure called a ______ ________
cauda equina, lumbar puncture or spinal tap
Each of the autonomic nercous system pathways has two neurons: one leading from the CNS to a ganglion (called _____________) and one leading from the ganglion to the organ innervated (called ______________).
In the sympathetic nervous system, preganglioinic neuron bodies are generally found in the ________ levels of the spinal cord (some are found as low as L2 though)
preganglioinic neurons pass through ____ and make synaptic contact, using the neurotransmitter _____________, onto postganglionic neurons in the ___________ _____ _______
sympathetic trunk ganglia
Postganglionic neurons release ______________ onto the effector organs.
For the effector organs of the head, the postganglionic neuron is in the ________ ________ ________. The postganglionic axon makes its wat, like a climbing ivy, along blood vessels of the head to finally terminate on the effector organs of the head.
superior cervical ganglion
The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the adrenal glands to more ___________ (adrenaline), which circulates through the bloodstream to increase fight-or-flight.
In the parasympathetic nervous system all organs except those in the pelvic region, cell bodies are found in which four cranial nervenuclei in the brainstem. These release _____________ onto postganglionic cells, in turn is released onto the effector organ.
oculomotor CN III
facial CN VII
glossopharyngeal CN IX
In the case of the pelvic region in the PNS the cell body of the preganglionic neuron is found in what part of the spinal cord?
For other effector organs, particularly those of the thorax and abdomen, the preganglionic neuron is found in the vagus nucleus inside the brainstem. Their axons form the _____ nerve (CN_)and the postganglionic neuron is short and found in an intramural ganglion which is part of the organ wall.
Landmarks on the cortex, ____ (bumps) and _____ (grooves), can be used to reliably locate different brain regions, each with a different function
the pathway from the motor cortex to spinal cord, overall, is called the _____________ _____.
in motor pathways the axon starts out as the ______ ______, it changes names twice (not needed). and then emerges on the ventral surface of the medulla as _______, then decussates at the ________ __ ___ _______ where the info crosses from the left side of the brain to the right side, and vice versa, then finally becomes the ______ corticospinal tract in the spinal cord. When axons reach the "right" level they enter the ________ horn and make synapses onto motor neurons there. These are called upper motor neurons.
decussation of the pyramids
_____ motor neurons are those in the spinal cored that derectly innervate skeletal muscle.
Ex. alpha motor neurons
All neurons in the brain and spinal cord that influence movement, but do not make direct contact with skeletal muscle fiber are called?
Ex.neurons of the precentral gyrus, basal nuclei, cerebellum
upper motor neurons
The process by which environmental energy (relevant stimulus) is transformed into an electrical and/or chemical signal the nervous system can use is called ___________
the _______ system are the parts of the nervous system that receive info from the internal and external environment.
All sensory systems (except olfaction) are routed through the ______ which is responsible for deciding which stimuli reach consciousness, before they are sent to the cortex.
___________ receive their stimuli from the external environment.
Ex. Your five senses, light particles/waves that are reflected off objects, pressure waves of air that hit your eardrum, being tapped on the shoulder
_____________ receive their energy from the internal environment.
Ex. oxygen levels, glucose levels, and CO2 levels (pH) in the blood.
______________ are receptors that integrate info about the state of stretch of skin, muscles, and tendons, with info about gravity, to produce a perception of where our joints are in space.
Ex.if you close your eyes and someone lifts your leg, you perceive that your leg is extended even though ou can't see it.
This sensory receptor detects movement, such as the pressure of clothing on skin, or a finger touching you. It would be found in somatosensory, proprioception, auditory (hearing), vestibular (balance)
This sensory receptor detects temperatures between 4 degree celcius and 50 degree celcius. below 4 degrees celcius and above 50 degree celcius, tissue is damaged and pain results. It would be found in somatosensory
This sensory receptor detect harmful or damaging stimuli. come from the same root as noxious and obnoxious. It woluld be found in somatosensory
This sensory receptor detects photons (particle/waves of light energy). Different wavelengths of light correspond to different hues.
It would be found in visual (sight).
This sensory receptor detects chemicals in the internal or external environment. It would be found in olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), O2, CO2, pH receptors in the blood.
This sensory receptor detect the salt levels in blood, and respond by secreting chemicals that regulatewater retention or loss. It would be found in the hypothalamus and endocrine
A _________ is an area of skin that is innervated by a single spinal nerve.
The C6 and C7 dermatomes are for the _____ and the _____ ______
T4 is for the ______ line
T10 is for the _________
L1-L5 _____ extemities
thumb and index finger
Name the layers of the neural retina from outside to inside (i.e. the direction of information flow).
_____ _______ _____(cell bodies of photoreceptors)
_____ ________ _____(synapses between photoreceptors and 2 degree cells)
_____ _______ _____(cell bodies of 2 degree and some 3 degree cells)
_____ ________ _____(synapses between 2 degree and 3 degree/output cells)
________ ____ _____(cell bodies of ganglion cells plus some other cells)
outer nuclear layer
outer synaptic layer
inner nuclear layer
inner synaptic layer
ganglion cell layer
What would be considered the "straight through" pathway of the retina? These three cell types send info directly to the brain in a point-to-point fashion.
photoreceptor to bipolar cell to ganglion cell
What would be considered the "side-to-side" pathway of the retina? These two cells tell neighboring cells what the straight-through pathway is doing.
horizontal and amacrine cells
_________ receptors are found on the superior surface of the nasal sinuses. This is what gives us sense of smell. In a human the size of a postage stamp, in a dog the size of a sheet of paper.
gustatory receptor cells are clustered in _____ ____, these are scattered over the surface of the oral cavity, but are found on the tongue in three groupings: fungiform papillae, foliate papillae, vallate papillae
This series of events is termed the _____ __________ _______:
1.waves of air arrive in external auditory canal
2.air moves tympanic membrane
3.tympanic membrane moves ossicles
4.stapes moves oval window
5.oval window moves perilymph fluid in scala vestibuli
6.waves of fluid in scala vestibuli set up vibrations in basilae membrane, which moves hair cells
7.fluid can pass from scala vestibuli to scala tympani at helicotrema
8.fluid in scala tympani
9.round windo is outlet for pressure
The Sound Conduction Pathway
In the case of sound, wavelength=frequency=_____.
This is used to measure head tilt (linear acceleration)
This is used to measure head rotation (angular acceleration)
The ___________ is the major link between the nervous and endocrine systems, andIt controls the pituitary gland.
The anterior lobe of the pituitary, also called the _______________, is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by blood vessels.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary, also calle the _______________, is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by specialized neurosecretory neurons.
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones stimulates growth of body cells?
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GNRH)
Human growth hormone (hGH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones stimulates thyroid gland?
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones stimulates cortex of adrenal glands?
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones help with ova/sperm development and production?
Gonadotropic-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones help in the maturation of uterine lining, testosterone production, and ovulation?
Gonadotropic-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Lutenizing hormone (LH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones promotes lactation of mammary glands?
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)
Name the hypothalamic hormone and the anterior pituitary hormone. What hormones darkens melanocytes?
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
This disorder is caused by insufficient hGH release during an individuals growth phase
This disorder occur as a result of excess hGH during an individuals growth phase.
________ is a disorder caused by excessive hGH secretion; the problem occurs during adulthood after a person is done growing. (enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, cheeks, and hands)
There are two types of diabetes insipidus: __________-insufficient production or secretion of ADH
___________-diminished renal response to the ADH that is produced
These are the actions of T3 and T4
1.________ the basal metabolic rate.
2.Stimulates the synthesis of additional _______-________ pumps.
3._______ protein synthesis.
4. _______ fatty acid and glucose catabolism.
6.________ the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
7.___________ body growth, especially during fetal life and adolescence.
Parathyroid hormone controls the levels of increases blood _______, _________, and decreases blood _________ ions in the blood. Increases levels of __________ (active form of vitamin D).PTH is to increase the number and activity of osteoclasts
The goal of PTH is to _______ blood calcium levels. Calcitonin wants to ______ them.
___________ is the main mineralcorticoid, its main function is to increase ___ and water reabsorption, __excretion, and act as a vasoconstrictor.
________ is the mian glucocorticoid, this regulates glucose metabolism, supress the immune system, and also facilitates resistance to stress.
___________ __ stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone.
effects of glucocorticoids: 1.______ breakdown, mainly in muscle ffibers, to free up amino acids for ATP production or synthesis of other proteins
2.Stimulates _____ cells to convert amino acids and lactic acid to glucose.
3.Stimulates the breakdown of _____________ to release fatty acids into the blood
4._______ the activity of WBC's that participate in inflammation.
A pheochromocytoma is a benighn tumor of the __________ _____ of the adrenal medulla. This tumor results in the _____________ of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
The pancreatic islets contain four different cells:
Alpha cells secrete ________
Beta cells secrete_______
Delta cells secrete ____________
F cells secrete __________ ___________
________ activates multiple mechanisms to increase the blood sugar level, conversion of glycogen to glucose and formation of glucose from lactic acid and amino acids.
______ acts on cells throughout the body in a number of different ways, all of which will result in a decrease in a persons blood sugar.
Blood has two major components, the _______ ______ consists of RBC's, WBC's, and platelets.
Red blood cells are __-_______ discs.They demonstrate __________-_______.
Mature red blood cells do not have a _______. RBC's live about ___ days. Because RBC's lack ____________, they don't use any of the oxygen they carry.
______________ is part of hematopoiesis, specifically relating to the production and maturation of red blood cells.
an almost mature red blood cell is known as a ____________. The __________ (Hct) is the percent of a patients whole blood that is occupied by red blood cells.
_________ is another term for a white blood cell. There are two different kinds: granulocytes which include ___________, ___________, and _________. and agranular leukocytes which includes _________ (macrophages in tissue) and lymphocytes which has three subtypes _ ___________, _ __________, and _______ ______ cells.
This is a very complex process which when activated causing a cessation of bleeding.
In hemostasis this is the constriction of damaged blood vessels, and is due to chemicals released from platelets.
In hemostasis this is where the platelets adhere to the wall of the blood vessel. then the platelets release their chemical contents, due to chemical release, the activated and newly-recruited platelets get sticky
platelet plug formation
In hemostasis is the process by taking that which is liquid (plasma) and make it solid (clot) or at least semi-solid.
______ ________ consists of a number of different cellular and chemical barriers which non-specifically protect the body and respond to pathogenic organisms.
The ________ ______ response is specific, adaptive, and generates memory.
In ______ immunity if the first barrier which is chemical and physical barriers such as mucus, mucus -coated hairs, cilia, and other fluids is compromised, the second takes over which includes a large number of internal defenses such as neutrophils and macrophages, and to guarantee a response, the ________ immunity takes over.
redness, pain, heat, swelling, and possible loss of function are all signs of ____________.
A substance that is recognized as foreign and reacts with product of the immune system is a _______. This is a part of ________ response because it is specific and it generates memory.
The middle-man or main "helper" of the immune response . These cells receive info from non-specific phagocytic cells and pass that info on to generate a specific response to a particular antigen. These are also called CD4 T-cells, dues to the presense of the CD4 marker.
These T-cells destroy abnormal cells. Virally-infected cells and cancerous cells are their main targets. These are also called CD8 T-cells.
These T-cells keep the immune system from getting out of control. They decrease the reactivity of the other types of T-cells. This is essential fro maintaining self-tolerance
These T-cells are produces with an initial exposure to an antigen to provide memory of the event and a rapid-response if re-exposed to the antigen. These cells do not participate the first time around.
memory T-cytotoxic cells
memory T-helper cells
B lymphocytes are produced in the ____ ______ and they are activated to become a ______ cell
In cell-mediated immunity the action is taken out with _-_________ lymphocytes these detect and destroy abnormal cells such as _______-________ cells, ______ cells , and cells infected by intracellular bacteria
In antibody-mediated immunity the action is taken out with _-___________ they are activated to become plasma cells and produce ________.
Ventricles are _______ chambers. The right ventricle is for _____ distance and against low pressure to lungs. The left ventricle is for ____ distance and against large pressure to body.
______ so not actively open, rather they are puched open by increases pressure, and mainly act as a "backflow preventer"
_____ function as reservoirs and filling chambers
There are two atrioventricular (AV) valves which are between the ______ and _________. They are called the tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral) valves
There are two outflow valves as well. The pulmonary valve goes to the _________ _____ (then to the lungs). ______ _____ to the aorta (then to the body).
In autorhythmicity after threshold is reached, __ channels open making the membrane potential more and more positive causing _____________.
In autorhythmicty __ _____ channels open causeing the membrane to "drift" towards threshold.
Na+ funny channels
In autorhythmicity __ channels open causing repolariztion of the cell membrane.
The _____ ____ is the number of cardiac cycles per minute, beats per minute.
ventricular volume at diastole is the ___-_______ ______. usually 120 mL
___-_______ ______ is the amount remaining in ventricles after contraction. usually 50 mL
At systole, colume of ventricles decreases by amount pumped out. EDV-ESV=about 70 mL. This is the ______ ______ ______
stroke volume output
This is the percentage of ventricle emptied at systole. Stroke volume output divided by end-diastolic volume= _______ ______
The quantity of blood pumped into aorta each minute is referred to as the _______ ______
In a blood vessel the opening of the vessel is the _____
In a blood vessel the layer that forms the innermost layer and consists of simple layer of squamous epithelium connected to a basement membrane is called?
In a blood vessel the layer that is a muscular and connective tissue layer that displays the greatest variation amoung the different vessels is know as the ______ ______
In a blood vessel the outer most covering of the blood vessel made up of elastic and collagen fibers and contains numerous sympathetic nerves which control the diameter of the vessel, and tiny blood veessels called the ____ ______ which are especially present in large vessels like the aorta
These vessels are large in diameter and have thin walls and are able to withstand high pressure.
These vessels are medium sized and contain more smooth muscle and fewr elastic fibers.
muscular or distributing arteries
These vessels are tiny arteries and adjust rate of blood flow to the capillaries.
These vessels are the site of nutrient and gas exchange.
These vessels are small veins.
Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid is called __________, oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients are delivered to cells by this.
Pressure-driven movement from interstitial fluid into blood capillaries is called ___________, CO2, acid, urea, and other wastes are returned to the capillaries by this.
In a healthy individual, about __ liters of blood is filtered each day from the capillaries. About __ liters per day is reabsorbed. The remainging _ liters of fluid is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system.
The left coronary artery it branches into the ________:which is oxygenated blood to walls of left ventricle and atrium. The _________ _______________ or ___carries oxygenated blood to walls of both ventricles
anterior interventricular or LAD
The right coronary artery branches into the ________ which carries blood to thright ventricle. the _________ _____________ branch carries blood to walls of both ventricles
The _____ ______ ____ lies in the anterior interventricular sulcus. it drains the ventricles and the left atrium
Great cardiac vein
The anterior cardiac vein drains the _____ ventricle. Opens dirsectly into the _____ atrium.
This lies in the posterior interventricular sulcus. It drains the posterior left and right ventricles.
middle cardiac vein
This drains the right atrium and right ventricle.
small cardiac vein
All of the coronary veins drain into the ______ _____ which drains drectly into the _____ atrium.
Air is moisturized, warmed. anf filtered by turbulence inside the _____ passage. It also has an increased surface area and mixing of air enhances olfaction here.
______ are cavities with cranial and facial bones that are lined with a mucous membrane.
This structure is a passageway way for air and food, is a resonating chamber, and houses the tonsils.
The pharnyx has three zones:___________:lies behind the internal nares and has a purely respiratory function. __________:lies being the mouth with borh respiratory and digestive function. ______________:opens into the larnyx and esophagus has both respiratory and digestive functions
This is the structure that connects the laryngopharnyx with thte trachea. It is just inferior to hyoid bone-a floating U-shaped bone and the epiglottis-"sorting paddle"
What is the opening of the larynx called
Name the pieces of cartilage that make up the larnyx.
1._______:(adams apple). formas the anterior surface of the larnyx.
2.__________:leaf shaped piece of hylane cartilage that closes over the larnyx when food or liquida are swallowed. Also allows gases such as oxygen into the trachea
3._______:A ring of hylaine cartilage that forms the inferior poortion of the larnyx
4._________:influences changes in position and tension in the vocal folds.
5.__________ and _________:support the vocal folds and the epiglottis
This is a semi-rigid tube about 12 cm long and is incomplete cartilage rings resembling the letter C. The posterior surface is shared with the esophagus.
The trachea divides into the right and left _______ ______ at a structure called ______.
The primary bronchi branch into the _________ ______ onto the ________ bronchi and eventually into __________ which end in structures that resemble grape clusters called _______ and this is where gas exchange in the lungs occur
Bronchi enter the lung at what is called the _____ which is an opening on the medial surface of each luncg.
The ________ pleura adheres to the lung. The ________ pleura adheres to the chest wall. There is a thin layer of pleural fluid between these, in the ______ cavity.
The ________ _________ muscles make up the intermediate layer of intercostal space. These muscles help decrease the size of the thoracic cavity during forced exahalation
This muscle which forms the floor of the thoracic cavity, is the most important muscle that powers breathing. Contraction enlarges the thoracic cavity enabling inhalation.
The phrenic nerve arises from the cervical plexus at levels __, __, and __. It stimulates the diaphragm muscle to contract.
Lungs receive both __________ innervation which with norepinephrine causes dilation of bronchial smooth muscle. and _______________ innervationvia the vagus nerve the neurotransmitter ___ is released and causes mucus secretion and constriction of bronchial smooth muscle.
Name the thirteen structures through which air passes during inspiration starting with 1.The outside world.
2.mouth or nose
6.left or right primary bronchi
_________ ___________ is the mass movement of air into and out of the lungs.
This is movement of air into the lungs, this is an active process and requires muscle action.
This is movement of air out of the lungs, this is usually a passive process due to elasticity of the lungs.
This is the process of gas exchange in the body
______ law states that pressure times volume is a constant at constant temperature. Pressure nad volume are inversely related. If volume goes up, pressure goes ____. If volume goes down, pressure goes __
During __________,the diaphragm, the internal and external intercostal muscles contract. These movements _______ the volume of the thoracic cavity.
In _________ elastic recoil of the chest wall and lungs causes volume in the thoracic cavity to ________.
The volume of air inspired or expired during normal quiet breathing.
Tidal volume (Vt)
All of the air that you can breathe in from the top of tidal volume (during a very deep inhalation)
Inspiratory reserve volume
All of the air that you can breathe out from the bottom of tidal volume during a forced exhalation.
Expiratory reserve volume
Air still present in the lung tissue after the thoracic cavity has been open.
The sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume.
The sum of residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
functional resdidual capacity
The sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume.
Sum of vital capacity and residual volume
total lung capacity.
________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli which contain atmospheric air. CO2 diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli; O2 diffuses from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries
________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the tissues and the systemic capillaries. O2 diffuses into the tissue, CO2 diffuses from the tissues into the bloodstream.
About 70% of CO2 is carried as ___________ ___. About 23% is carried in __________. about 7% is dissolved as a gas in ______.
When H+ is abundant (acidic conditions), excess H+ is "sponged up" by HC)3- to form H2CO3. This pushes the reaction to the left and more _____ and _____ ______ are made
When H is scarce (alkaline conditions),excess H+is release by H2CO3 to form HCO3- and H+. This pushes the reaction to the right and more __________ ___ is made.
________ cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) to aid in digestion and protect from invaders.
___ and ___ in the stomach are turned into carbonic acid (H2CO3) by the enzyme ________ _________
Several neurotransmitters/hormones __-________ HCl secretion such as ___ from parasympathetic stimulation (vagus), ______ from G cells, _________ from mast cells in lamina propria (via H2 receptors)
In the small intestine the lumen is wrinkly ,with _____ _________. The ______ _______ of the mucosa has a rich capillary bed, with numerous arterioles and venules. A small lymph vessel called a _______ carries lipids from the absorptive epithelium.
The muscularis layer has two sublayers of smooth muscle fibers: a ________ and a ____________ layer. Between these two layers clusters of neurons that control autonomic movements of the intestines is the _________ _____, these neurons generate the ___________ _____ that keep things moving in the GI tract.
The luminal surface of the small intestines appears velvity due to the presence of _____, a smaller version that coats these is termed ___________
In the small intestines the cells that are mucous secreting are called ______ _____
In the small intestines the cells that are enzyme-secreting and are also capable of phagocytosis are called ______ _____
In the small intestines _______________ cells secrete _______ from S cells, _______________ (CCK) from the CCK cells, and _______-_________ _____________ _______ (GIP) from K cells.
glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide
At every level o, the small intestine is specialized to increase _______ ____.
Glucose and galactose are absorbed into the microvilli by _________ ______ _________ with ___. and absorbed into the blood capillary by __________ _________.
secondary active transport
fructose is absorbed into the microvilli and into the blood capillary by ___________ _________.
amino acids are absorbed into the microvilli by ______ _________ or __________ ______ _________ with ___. and absorbed into the blood capillary by _________.
secondary active transport
Dipeptides and tripeptides are absorbed into the microvilli by _________ _____ _________ with __ and into the blood capillary by _________
secondary active transport
short -chain fatty acids are absorbed into the microvilli by ______ _________ and into the blood capillary by _________.
Long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides are absorbed into the microvilli by ______ ________, they then turn into a ____________ by intesetinal absorptive cells, and then it is packaged into a ____________which are pushed out of the basolateral surface and into a small lymph vessel called a _______.
In the stomach, parietal cells secrete _________ ______, a glycoprotein that helps cells of the intestinal ilium absorb which vitamin from the diet?
_____-soluble vitamins include B,C, niacin, biotin,folic acid. These are absorbed directly by the stomach and intestines.
fat-solube vitamins include _, _, _, and _
In the large intestines tere are only two cell types they are _____-_________ goblet cells and
_____-_________ absorbptive cells these cells have microvilli.
There are two sphincters in the anus: the internal anal sphincter is under ___________ (_________ motor)control and is ______ muscle. the external anal sphincter is under _________ (_______ motor) control and is ________ muscle
In the liver unconjugated bilirubin is conjugated to the small molecule __________ ____, making it water-soluble. This makes up a major portion of ____.
This type of bilirubin is processed by the kidnets and gives urine its yellow color.
Bilirubin in the bile is released into the intestines where it is converted into __________ , which gives feces its brown color.
The endocrine pancreas=_______
The exocrine pancreas (digestive)=_____.
These secrete ______ ___________ to buffer stomach acid, starch-digesting enzyme called __________ _______, and four types of protein-digesting enzymes:_______,____________,________________,________, Fat-digesting enzyme:__________ ______, and RNA and DNA digesting enzymes: _____ and _____
In the exocrine pancreas acini secrete ______ ___________ to buffer stomach acid
In the exocrine pancreas acini secrete a starch-digesting enzyme called __________ _______,
In the exocrine pancreas acini secrete four types of protein-digesting enzymes:_______, ____________, ________________, ________.
In the exocrine pancreas acini secrete a fat-digesting enzyme:__________ ______
In the exocrine pancreas acini secreteRNA and DNA digesting enzymes: ____________ (RNase) and _________________ (DNase)
_______ digestion is the breakdown of food into nutrients through chemical reactions.
In chemical digestion the ____ ______ uses salivary glands to secrete enzymes that break down starches and fats. The ______ has HCl to break down foods, pepsin to break down proteins, and gastric lipase to break down fats. The _____ _________ has bicarbonate to neutralize acid and enzymes to break down food, bile salts from liver to emulsify fats. The _____ ________ has beneficial bacteria to make vitamin K, to digest cellulose (fiber), and make methane.
The nephron include two groups of structures the renal ________, and the renal _______.
renal corpuscle consists of the __________ (glomerular capillaries) and the __________ _______;the filtering structure of the nephron.
The role of the _____ ______ is to modify the filtrate to faciliate the final product of urine formation.
The ________ __________ ______ is a tightly-coiled tubule attached directly to the glomerulus.
proximal conoluted tubule
The ___ __ _____ froms a hair-pin turn by connecting two lengths , ot limb of the tubule, the ascending and descending.
lopo of Henle
The ______ __________ ______ is similar to the proximal tubule it is tightly-coiled, but is farther away from the glomerulus.
Distal convoluted tuble
several distal convolute tubules come together to form a single __________ duct which merge into the _________ duct which empties into the _____ _____
In a ________ nephron the loop of Henle extends only a short distance into the medulla. Consists of __-__% of nephrons
In a ______________ nephron the loop of Henle extend deep into the medulla. Consists of __-__% of nephrons
In the proces of filtration the first layer in the glomerular membrane is the _________ endothelium. Which is made up of ___________ capillaries these limit the passage of ______ ________
In the proces of filtration the second layer in the glomerular membrane is a layer of connective tissue (_____ ______) which prevents filtration of ____ proteins This layer is sandwiched between the endothelium and the podocytes.
In the proces of filtration the third layer in the glomerular membrane is formed by unique cells called _________. These cells have numerous foot-processes (pedicels) that extend form the podocytes. The pedicels have small spaces between them called __________ _____ which prevent the filtration of ______ sized proteins
The GFR needs to be constant one of the mechanisms to keep it constant is: _____ ______________ which uses myogenic mechanisms-constricting or dilating the afferent arterioles and tubuloglomerular feedback-the macula densa detects increased Na+, K+, and water, decreasesd release of nitric oxide (vasoconstriction). Used to reduce GFR
The GFR needs to be constant one of the mechanisms to keep it constant is:______ __________which is the inhibition of sypathetic control-decreased norepinephrine, constriction of afferent arteriole. Used to decrease GFR
The GFR needs to be constant one of the mechanisms to keep it constant is:Hormonal regulation which uses ________ _ as a vasoconstrictor to decrese GFR and ______ ___________ _______ (ANP) to increase the GFR
atrial natriuretic peptide
This is the process of returning important substances from teh glomerular filtrate back to the body.
The majority of solute and water reabsorption occurs in the ________ convoluted tubule:__% of filtrate is reabsorbed. __% of water, sodium and potassium. ___% of glucose and amino acids. __% of urea. This is because the cells of this area are cuboidal epithelium with prominent microvilli.
A substance can be reabsorbed from the filtrate through one of two routes, between the renal tubule cells(___________ reabsorption) and through the renal tubule (___________ reabsorption).
_________ proteins are present on the surface cells to actively reabsorb many of the solutes.
Transporters have a limit to how fast it can reabsob a particular solute, If the level of a solute exeeds the ________ _______ (Tm), any excess will be excreted into the urine.
__________ reabsorptoin is 90% of water reabsorption this is where water follows concentration graident throughout most of the nephron.
___________ reabsorption is 10 % of water reabsorption this occurs when the body is trying facilitate a specific need. This mechanism is under influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
This is the process of removing a substance from the blood and secreting it into the tubular lumen to be excreted with the urine. Some substances include H+, K+ and NH4+, creatinine and some drugs
intracellular fluid (fluid within cells) accounts for _/_ of the total fluid in the body.
Extracellular fluid (flluid outside the cell) accounts for _/_ of the total body fluid in the body. The main extracellular space for fluid is the ____________ ___________ which is "bathing" the cells. Which includes plasma, glomerular filtrate, lymph, CSF, Gi, synovial, ears, eyes, pleural, pericardial, and pertoneal.
With a ________ in interstital concentration, water will move into the intracellular space and cause cellular swelling, and if severe enough, cellular death. This is termed ______ ____________.
Kidneys can excrete water at a rate of __ ml/min.
_______ are molecules that have the ability to bind H+, thus reducing the pH of the soulution. The H are not removed they are simply tied up.
doubling the ventilation rate (hyperventilation) will _______ the pH about .23 units
reducing the ventilation rate(hypoventilation) by 75% can _______ the pH by about 0.4%
The collecting ducts can secrete __ when the pH is low, and ____ when the pH is high.
This is an accumulation of excess CO2. (hypoventilation, emphysema)
This is an exhalation of too much CO2. (severe anxiety, oxygen deficiency)
This is a decrease in plasma HCO3-, non-respiratory acid accumlation, failure of kidneys to secrete H+. (diarrhea, ketosis, renal dysfunction)
This is a non-respiratory acid loss, excessive HCO3-.(vomiting, antacids)
In bothe males and females ____________ _________ hormone from the hypothalamus directs the secretion of FSH and LH. FSH acts on ________ in females and stimulant to the ________ cells and ________ (sertoli) cells in males
In the first week of fertilization what five events take place. starting with fertilization
upon implantation (days _-_) the blastocyst divides into three parts:___________, _____ ____ ____
->_________ ____, and the ____ ___
inner cell mass->embryonic disc
This is the folding process that creates three germ layers in the embryo (most important day of your life), they are: _______ (epidermis,teeth,nervous system,posterior pituitary), ________ (somites, kidneys, heart, reproductive system, gonads), and ________ (lungs, bladder, thyroid, liver, pancreas, lining of digestive tract)