Psych - test 3

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This Austrian psychiatrist, a concentration camp survivor, wrote the book Man's Search for
Meaning, where he proposed that the human qualities of spirituality, freedom, and responsibility were key in finding one's true meaning in life (and death).

Viktor E. Frankl

Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood.

Visible signs, Height and weight, Vision and hearing

Roy Baumeister and Kathleen Vohs believe that a meaningful life can be understood in terms of four main needs. Which of the following is NOT one of those needs?
a. the need for financial security
b. the need for purpose
c. the need for values
d. the need for self-worth

a. the need for financial security

Today the average life expectancy in the United States is:
a. 72 years.
b. 74 years.
c. 78 years.
d. 80 years.

c. 78 years.

Which of the following is a sign of aging for the average adult in middle adulthood?
a. Increase in height
b. Decrease in weight
c. Fingernails become brittle
d. Loss of memory

c. Fingernails become brittle

The average adult in middle adulthood _____ height and _____ weight.
a. loses; loses
b. loses; gains
c. gains; gains
d. gains; loses

b. loses; gains

Which of the following statements about bone and joint functioning is TRUE?
a. Peak functioning of the body's joints usually occurs in the thirties.
b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.
c. Maximum bone density occurs by the mid‐ to late twenties.
d. The rate of bone loss decelerates in the fifties.

b. Women experience about twice the rate of bone loss as men.

Which of the following is an outcome of the reduced blood supply to the eye during late middleage?
a. decrease in the visual field's size
b. decrease in the eye's blind spot
c. formation of wrinkles and under the eyes
d. increase in the size of the pupil

a. decrease in the visual field's size

Which of the following is MOST likely to cause difficulty for a middle aged adult without glasses?
a. reading a newspaper
b. watching TV
c. reading an eye chart 20 feet away
d. reading a road sign during the day

a. reading a newspaper

Which of the following are the MOST common chronic disorders for men during middle age?
a. cancer, heart disease, stroke
b. arthritis, bursitis, varicose veins
c. hearing impairments, vision impairments
d. sinus problems, respiratory problems

a. cancer, heart disease, stroke

What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?
a. arthritis
b. hypertension
c. sinus problems
d. hearing impairment

a. arthritis

Which of the following statements regarding the immune system is TRUE?
a. Its machinery consists of billions of red blood cells.
b. When a person is under stress, the levels of bacteria and viruses drop dramatically.
c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.
d. Stress increases the number of natural killer (NK) cells in the body.

c. Natural killer (NK) cells are a type of white blood cell.

The main cause of death in middle adulthood in the United States is:
a. infectious diseases.
b. accidents.
c. chronic diseases.
d. homicide.

c. chronic diseases.

What is the notable finding of Schaie's assessment of intellectual abilities of parents and their children?
a. The second generation scored higher on numerical abilities.
b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.
c. The offspring generation showed cognitive decline from 60 to 67 years of age.
d. The parent generation showed modest increase in cognitive functioning from 60 to 67 years of age.

b. The second generation showed higher levels of cognitive functioning in inductive reasoning.

Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
a. Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
b. Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
d. Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with other
information.

c. Use an organization strategy to categorize information to be remembered.

The seventh stage of Erikson's life‐span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did
Erikson give this stage?
a. intimacy versus isolation
b. integrity versus despair
c. generativity versus stagnation
d. keeping the meaning versus rigidity

c. generativity versus stagnation

According to Levinson, the changes to middle‐adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these major conflicts?
a. being young versus being old
b. being attractive versus being unattractive
c. being masculine versus being feminine
d. being destructive versus being constructive

b. being attractive versus being unattractive

Daniel Levinson's studies suggest that most adults feel that middle age is a time of:
a. crisis.
b. reconsolidation.
c. peace and tranquility.
d. intimacy and social closeness.

a. crisis.

What did Levinson's research conclude about women in midlife transition?
a. Women have significantly less distress during this process.
b. Women face the midlife transition earlier and with greater difficulty than do men.
c. Women who have had children have an easier time than those who have not.
d. Levinson's stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

d. Levinson's stages, transitions, and the crisis of middle age hold for females as well as males.

Referring to studies from Chapter 15, which of the following abilities does not peak in midlife?
a. vocabulary
b. verbal memory
c. inductive reasoning
d. visual acuity

d. visual acuity

What is the difference between life events and hassles?
a. life events are minor; hassles are major
b. life events are within one's control; hassles are outside of one's control
c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting
d. life events lead to stress; hassles lead to boredom

c. life events are temporary; hassles are long‐lasting

Which of the following is likely to be a daily uplift for a middle aged adult?
a. entertainment
b. games or other physical activities
c. completing a task
d. relating well with a friend

d. relating well with a friend

Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of the contexts of life that influence
development during middle adulthood?
a. historical
b. gender
c. genetic
d. culture

c. genetic

Which of the following is true of middle aged and older adults who had poor sibling relationships in childhood?
a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.
b. Women were more likely to develop depression by 40.
c. Both men and women tended to re‐bond with their siblings during middle‐age.
d. Women tended to move away from sibling relationships.

a. Men were more likely to develop depression by age 50.

Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid‐50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:
a. you cannot predict later relationships by looking at relationships earlier in life.
b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.
c. they probably had a tumultuous relationship in childhood that turned close as both matured.
d. they probably had a good childhood relationship that turned neutral in early adulthood then
recently returned to closeness.

b. they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood too.

Ben's parents have divorced and his mother has primary custody. If Ben's relationship with his father deteriorates as a result of the divorce, research has shown that his relationship with his paternal grandparents will likely:
a. become distant or negative.
b. remain the same as it was before the divorce.
c. become closer.
d. show a decline initially but improves as he grows older.

a. become distant or negative.

If born today, in what country would a person have the highest life expectancy?
a. United States
b. Japan
c. Soviet Union
d. Sweden

b. Japan

Why is life expectancy for women longer than for men?
a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.
b. Women experience less stress than men do.
c. Women work harder and for more years than men do.
d. Men generally suffer greater financial hardship than women do.

a. Women engage in fewer high risk behaviors.

If men and women engaged in exactly the same health‐related behaviors, experienced the same amounts of stress, reacted to stress in the same ways, and had the same work habits and attitudes, which of the following would be expected?
a. Men and women would have the same life expectancies.
b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.
c. Men would have longer life expectancies than would women.
d. Men and women would both have shorter life expectancies.

b. Women would have longer life expectancies than would men.

Which of the following biological reasons explains women's increased resistance to infections and degenerative diseases?
a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome
b. lower cholesterol levels and improved lung function
c. postmenopausal hormone levels and increased body water
d. better osmoregulation and lower trans fat

a. estrogen production and the additional X chromosome

***Longevity is positively correlated with:
a. ability to cope.
b. lack of stressful events.
c. years of marriage.
d. socioeconomic status

b. lack of stressful events.

Uncle Roger tells you that he is a "member of the oldest old" club, when asked his age. Even
without knowing his exact age, you know that Uncle Roger is at least _____ years old.
a. 70
b. 75
c. 80
d. 85

d. 85

After the age of 80, the majority of elderly adults are:
a. living in a nursing home.
b. living an independent life in the community.
c. under the full‐time care of family or friends.
d. spending more time in the hospital than at home.

b. living an independent life in the community.

Dr. LaRossa has spent her career studying the causes of aging. She hypothesizes that as we age, our cells become increasingly less capable of dividing. Dr. LaRossa espouses the _____ theory of aging.
a. telomerase‐injection
b. cellular clock
c. free‐radical
d. hormonal stress

b. cellular clock

DNA sequences that cap chromosomes and that are implicated in why cells die are known as:
a. free radicals.
b. polymers.
c. telomeres.
d. mitochondria

c. telomeres.

As part of aging, after about 70 or 80 replications, the cell no longer can reproduce and the
_____ are dramatically reduced.
a. mitochondria
b. telomeres
c. chromosomes
d. sperm cells

b. telomeres

According to recent study, a higher intake of which of the following vitamins were related to
incidence of longer telomeres in women?
a. vitamin C and E
b. vitamin B12 and D
c. vitamin A and K
d. vitamin B2 and D

a. vitamin C and E

The tiny bodies within cells that supply essential energy for function, growth, and repair are
known as:
a. Lewy bodies.
b. ribosomes.
c. chromosomes.
d. mitochondria

d. mitochondria

Defects in mitochondria have been linked with all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
a. cardiovascular disease.
b. arthritis.
c. decline in liver function.
d. dementia.

b. arthritis.

The hormonal stress theory DIFFERS from the cellular clock and the free‐radical theories of aging in that it:
a. focuses only on the processes of aging in the oldest‐old.
b. ignores changes at the cellular level.
c. discounts the role of genetics in aging.
d. deemphasizes external stressors as the cause of aging.

b. ignores changes at the cellular level.

What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to
stress?
a. Younger people have a slower restorative process after a stressful episode.
b. Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
c. The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

d. Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.

Prolonged, elevated levels of stress‐related hormones have been associated with all of the
following conditions EXCEPT _____.
a. hypertension
b. cancer
c. diabetes
d. arthritis

d. arthritis

With age:
a. brain weight decreases; brain volume does not decrease.
b. brain volume decreases; brain weight does not decrease.
c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.
d. neither brain weight nor brain volume decrease.

c. both brain weight and brain volume decrease.

Which of the following areas of the brain shrinks more than the others?
a. prefrontal cortex
b. amygdala
c. hypothalamus
d. premotor cortex

a. prefrontal cortex

Paul, age 76, turns the television volume up so that it is at an uncomfortable level for the rest of the family. When his son suggests that he may have a hearing problem, Paul says that he does not and that the volume is "just right." Paul's reaction to having a decline in his ability to hear it is:
a. fairly common in older adults.
b. out of the ordinary; most older adults clearly recognize that they don't hear well.
c. a sign of depression.
d. a sign of hostility toward his family.

a. fairly common in older adults.

What percentage of 75‐ to 79‐year‐olds have hearing difficulties?
a. 15 percent
b. 25 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 75 percent

d. 75 percent

Speed and accuracy of the processes involved in sensory input, attention, visual and motor
memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization are components of:
a. cognitive perception.
b. cognitive pragmatics.
c. cognitive mechanics.
d. cognitive intelligence.

c. cognitive mechanics.

Cognitive pragmatics is defined as:
a. a component of mental processing.
b. abstract reasoning skills.
c. the nerve cells of the brain that are the basis of intelligence.
d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one's culture.

d. the mental skills and routines that one learns from one's culture.

Whereas cognitive _____ appears to decline in old age, cognitive _____ appears to remain
constant or increase.
a. mechanics; pragmatics
b. pragmatics; mechanics
c. pragmatics; reasoning
d. learning; reasoning

a. mechanics; pragmatics

One study found that after 6 months of _____, older adults showed improvement on reaction
time tasks.
a. eating a macrobiotic diet
b. cognitive behavioral therapy
c. doing aerobic exercise
d. attending regular religious services

c. doing aerobic exercise

***Selective attention is _____, whereas divided attention is _____.
a. vigilance; focusing on a specific event
b. paying attention only occasionally; constantly paying attention
c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things
d. paying attention to detail; paying attention to significant events

c. focusing on one thing; focusing on many things

***Competently driving a car demands _____; this includes search, selection, and switching.
a. divided attention
b. programmed attention
c. sequential attention
d. sustained attention

d. sustained attention

The most important factor in how well adults remember information from the past is:
a. how motivated they are to remember.
b. how long ago they learned the information.
c. how old they were when they learned the information.
d. how well they learned the information.

d. how well they learned the information.

Remembering where you went on vacation last summer is an example of _____ memory.
a. situational
b. semantic
c. procedural
d. episodic

d. episodic

Although Alicia has a great memory for trivia, she has difficulty remembering important events in her life. Alicia has good _____ memory but poor _____ memory.
a. episodic; procedural
b. procedural; semantic
c. semantic; episodic
d. explicit; implicit

c. semantic; episodic

Older adults have a harder time recognizing a street sign than younger adults, because they
have:
a. a decline in explicit memory.
b. slower perceptual speed.
c. inferior semantic memory.
d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

d. lost the ability to use their working memory.

Explicit memory is also called _____ memory.
a. collective
b. procedural
c. declarative
d. false

c. declarative

Eleanor, who is 75, believes that older people cannot remember new information very well.
Because of this, she has decided not to learn how to use a computer. In view of the research regarding memory and the elderly, what can you say to Eleanor?
a. It is probably best she does not learn to use a computer, as she would have a much more difficult time than a younger person.
b. Although she could learn to use a computer adequately, she will have a difficult time remembering what she learned days earlier.
c. She could learn computer skills, but her ability to type would be slightly impaired.
d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

d. Her negative beliefs about her memory will have a negative influence on her ability to learn.

Which of the following persons is most likely to be "wise"?
a. Ida Mae, who is 72
b. Jerome, who is highly intelligent
c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness
d. Kyoko, who is introverted

c. Stanley, who is more concerned about the welfare of others than his own happiness

Which of the following has been linked to lower cognitive performance, not only in older adults but also in young and middle‐aged adults?
a. hypertension
b. Alzheimer's disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. decreased inhibition

a. hypertension

***Which of the following has been associated with cognitive decline?
a. schizophrenia
b. depression
c. bipolar illness
d. obsessive‐compulsive disorder

b. depression

Jake is only 25 but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
a. eat foods low in fat
b. do crossword puzzles
c. take up a challenging job
d. quit smoking

b. do crossword puzzles

Senior Odyssey is a 20‐week program designed to:
a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.
b. improve motor‐skills and general physical health in older adults.
c. teach adults to multitask.
d. expose older adults to younger people through shared social activities.

a. improve problem‐solving skills in older adults.

According to Denise Park and Patricia Reuter‐Lorenz, neurocognitive _____ involves the use of complementary, neural circuits to protect cognitive functioning in an aging brain.
a. scaffolding
b. bypassing
c. extension
d. regeneration

a. scaffolding

A common memory problem for older adults is the _____ which individuals can't quite retrieve familiar information but have the feeling that they should be able to retrieve it.
a. dementia
b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
c. temporary memory loss
d. mental block

b. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon

Which of the following is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease?
a. increased irritability and aggressiveness
b. word‐finding/generating difficulties
c. decrease in ability to produce well‐formed sentences
d. decreased eye‐hand coordination

b. word‐finding/generating difficulties

Which of the following statements about older workers is TRUE?
a. Older workers have more accidents than younger workers.
b. Older workers have higher rates of absenteeism than younger workers.
c. Older workers are of considerably less value to a company than younger workers.
d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

d. Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.

Which of the following is likely the MOST probable reason for not hiring older adults?
a. rapid pace of technological advancement
b. negative ageist stereotyping
c. availability of vast young talent pool
d. lack of job‐types fitting older adult workers

b. negative ageist stereotyping

Which of the following is called the "common cold" of mental disorders?
a. schizophrenia
b. Alzheimer's disease
c. tip‐of‐the‐tongue phenomenon
d. major depression

d. major depression

Common predictors of depression in older adults include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. poor health.
b. a history of depression in earlier years.
c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.
d. death of a spouse or other loss events.

c. a history of obsessive compulsive disorder.

What percentage of suicides involves older adults 65 years of age or older?
a. less than 2 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 25 percent
d. 40 percent

c. 25 percent

What do Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease have in common?
a. Both affect men at much higher rates than women.
b. Both are chronic and progressive.
c. Both affect only the elderly.
d. Both are easily managed with medication.

b. Both are chronic and progressive.

Martha cares for her elderly mother, Marjorie, who has Alzheimer disease. Although Marjorie
goes to a program at the senior center a few hours each week, the majority of her care falls to Martha.According to research on family caregivers for persons with Alzheimer disease, Martha is at risk for developing:
a. an ulcer.
b. migraine headaches.
c. depression.
d. obsessions.

c. depression.

Marcus is showing some signs of cognitive impairment. He has slurred speech and difficulty
writing. He most likely has:
a. dementia.
b. Alzheimer disease.
c. Parkinson disease.
d. multi‐infarct dementia.

d. multi‐infarct dementia.

Mr. Dalton has a disease that is characterized by muscle tremors, slow movement, and partial facial paralysis. The doctors have told his family that the disease is chronic and progressive in nature. Which of the following conditions does Mr. Martin most likely have?
a. Alzheimer disease
b. multi‐infarct syndrome
c. Lewey body dementia
d. Parkinson disease

d. Parkinson disease

Erikson's last stage of development is characterized by _____.
a. care
b. fidelity
c. wisdom
d. hope

c. wisdom

Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs is interviewed on his 100th birthday, and a reporter asks, "How do you want to be remembered?" Mr. Widaman‐Gibbs reflects for a moment and responds, "I want to be remembered by the traditions I have left behind in my family; my legacy is not who I was but insteadwho my children and grandchildren are." Erik Erikson would classify this response as indicating Mr. Larson's sense of _____. ??? p. 594-595????
a. identity
b. intimacy
c. integrity
d. autonomy

...

What is the last stage in life according to Erik Erikson?
a. death versus dying
b. integrity versus despair
c. immortality versus death
d. independence versus dependence

b. integrity versus despair

Which of the following is a therapy clinicians use to resolve the regrets and lower the depression older adults face?
a. gestalt therapy
b. reminiscence therapy
c. schema therapy
d. drama therapy

b. reminiscence therapy

Which theory explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and
family?
a. activity theory
b. socioemotional selectivity theory
c. social discontinuity theory
d. disengagement theory

b. socioemotional selectivity theory

According to the socioemotional selectivity theory, individuals are motivated by two types of
goals—emotional and:
a. spiritual.
b. practical.
c. relational.
d. knowledge‐related.

d. knowledge-related.

The model of selective optimization with compensation is based on the idea that older adults
fare better when they:
a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.
b. use technology to broaden and increase their daily activities and efforts.
c. develop positive and creative coping strategies to deal with their limitations.
d. limit the scope of their social networks and concentrate on only a few friendships.

a. ignore their increasing limitations as much as possible.

Which of the following, suggested by Baltes and colleagues, is a selection strategy for older
adults?
a. To achieve something, you may need to be patient until the right moment arrives.
b. Think about what you want in life and commit yourself to one or two major goals.
c. When things don't go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.
d. Keep working on what you have planned until you are successful.

c. When things don't go the way they used to, search for other ways to achieve what you want.

According to the cross‐sectional study by Ursula Staudinger, which of the following is the MOST important investment for adults between 25 to 34 years of age?
a. work
b. family
c. friends
d. independence

a. work

Older adults focus on _____; the oldest‐old focus on _____.
a. family; thinking about life
b. friends; family
c. cognitive fitness; physical fitness
d. family; health

d. family; health

Older adults characterized by _____ don't live as long as those who are _____.
a. empathy; sympathetic
b. materialism; spiritualist
c. pessimism; optimistic
d. generosity; frugal

c. pessimism; optimistic

The status an elderly person is accorded in a culture depends on the degree to which he or she:
a. has power and autonomy.
b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.
c. has autonomy, has useful skills, and contributes to family harmony.
d. has useful skills and does not interfere with family functioning.

b. has control over family resources, has valued knowledge, and is integrated into the family.

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

According to the text, which of the following could be the reason why many ethnic minority
workers never enjoy the Social Security and Medicare benefits to which their earnings contribute?
a. because most of them do not qualify for these benefits
b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits
c. because their contributions to the benefits are negligible and thus they might not get sufficient
benefits.
d. because most of the ethnic minority workers are illegal immigrants

b. because they die before reaching the age of eligibility for benefits

Which of the following is NOT a factor that predicts high status for the elderly in a culture?
a. whether older people control key community resources
b. whether the extended family is a common family arrangement
c. whether older people are permitted to engage in useful functions
d. whether older people have had a large number of children

d. whether older people have had a large number of children

A theory of aging suggests that older adults become more selective about their social networks, because they place a high value on emotional satisfaction in their relationships.

Socioemotional selectivity theory

The view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members, because older adults receive inequitably large allocations of resources.

Generational inequity

What is the role of gender in relationships involving older adult parents and their children?

Adult daughters rather than sons are more likely to be involved in the lives of their aging parents.

Rory works in a laboratory analyzing the results of biopsies and other tests. Kastenbaum would say that Rory's function in the death system is that of:
a. preventing death.
b. warning and prediction.
c. making sense of death.
d. undertaking death ceremonies.

d. undertaking death ceremonies.

Which of the following is true of the American attitude toward death?
a. Americans are conditioned from early in life to live as mere mortals.
b. It is not uncommon for Americans to reach adulthood without having seen someone die.
c. To live a full life and die with glory is the prevailing goal of the Americans.
d. Americans do not use any symbols associated with death.

...

Why is it more difficult to determine whether someone is dead now than it was 100 years ago?
a. because fewer people die at home today
b. because medical technology has made it possible to live much longer today
c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death
d. because the development of different religions has given rise to different philosophies of the
meanings of life and death

c. because medical technology has made it possible to create differing definitions of death

A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brainfunction. Her parents decide to take her off the life‐support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe on her own. Is the young woman dead?
a. No, because she continues to breathe on her own.
b. It is unclear, because we do not know how long she will breathe on her own.
c. Yes, because she is no longer capable of thinking or showing personality characteristics.
d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

d. It is unclear, because death can be defined in different ways by different people.

Germaine has signed an advance directive. This means that:
a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.
b. he has given his immediate family legal control over his care.
c. he has authorized his family to engage in active euthanasia.
d. he has ordered his physician to do everything possible to keep him alive.

a. his physician can disconnect him from life‐sustaining equipment.

Recent scientific advances in the United States have led to more people:
a. dying a painless and easy death in their own home.
b. living a better‐quality life in their final stages of dying.
c. dying a painless and easy death in the hospital.
d. suffering more and in pain longer before they die.

...

An advanced directive/living will must be signed when:
a. at least two medical professionals are present.
b. a doctor and a lawyer are present.
c. when an individual is told he or she has a life‐threatening condition.
d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

d. when an individual is able to think clearly.

_____ is a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and
depression as possible.
a. Terminal care
b. End‐of‐life care
c. Hospice
d. Palliative care

c. Hospice

Currently in the United States, 90% of hospice care is provided:
a. in special units in hospitals.
b. in nursing homes.
c. in the patients' homes.
d. in free‐standing hospice facilities in the community.

c. in the patients' homes.

What is the leading cause of infant death in the United States?
a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
b. accidents
c. child abuse
d. cancer

a. sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Allen is 8 years old. Which of the following presents the greatest risk of death for Allen?
a. cancer
b. suicide
c. respiratory illness
d. accidents

d. accidents

Most deaths that occur during adolescence are caused by:
a. illnesses.
b. automobile accidents.
c. heart disease.
d. genetic disorders.

b. automobile accidents.

Older adults are more likely to die from:
a. autoimmune diseases.
b. genetic disorders.
c. accidents.
d. chronic diseases.

d. chronic diseases.

When explaining death to younger children (around preschool age), the most important point for parents to stress is that:
a. death is final and irreversible.
b. all things die.
c. death is a physical and biological process.
d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

d. the child is loved and will not be abandoned.

Compared to young children, which of the following is likely to be a differentiating aspect of
adolescents' view of death?
a. They tend to get angry at death.
b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.
c. They need more reassurance that they will be loved even after a caregiver dies.
d. They generally do not get upset at the sight of death.

b. They develop more abstract conceptions of death.

What is the main difference between the feelings of terminally ill younger adults and those of terminally ill older adults?
a. Younger adults feel more anger.
b. Older adults feel more guilt.
c. Younger adults feel cheated.
d. Older adults feel more resigned.

c. Younger adults feel cheated.

Elisabeth Kübler‐Ross divided the behavior and thinking of dying people into five stages. Which of the following lists these stages in the correct order?
a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
b. denial and isolation, bargaining, anger, depression, acceptance
c. denial and isolation, anger, grief, bargaining, acceptance
d. anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance, grief

a. denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Josue has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will spare his life. Josue is in which of Kübler‐Ross' stages of dying?
a. denial
b. hope
c. bargaining
d. acceptance

c. bargaining

Which of the following observations is true regarding finding meaning and purpose in lives in the event of death?
a. Studies have found that educating dying people about Kübler‐Ross' stages help them overcome depression.
b. Only people with terminal illnesses are benefited by disconnecting the self from love objects.
c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.
d. Involvement of community organizations helps minimize the pain and depression faced by dying individuals.

c. Studies have found that spirituality helps to buffer dying individuals from severe depression.

Which of the following is an advantage of a dying individual knowing that he or she is dying?
a. The person can seek more aggressive medical interventions.
b. The person can move through the stages of dying more quickly.
c. The person can construct more effective means of denying death.
d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

d. The person has time to reflect on his or her life and make decisions about dying.

"I really have to go see Mr. Milhauser," Marla says, "but I have no idea what to say to someone who is dying." What should Marla do?
a. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about her own health problems.
b. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about the type of treatment he is receiving.
c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.
d. Send a message rather than going to see Mr. Milhauser so that she will not tire him.

c. Talk with Mr. Milhauser about his strengths and foster internal growth.

Allison's grandmother is dying and she is very frail and weak. Which of the following would be good advice for Allison?
a. "Limit the length of your visit so that your grandmother does not get too tired."
b. "Don't touch your grandmother; dying people don't want to be touched."
c. "Change the subject if your grandmother talks about dying."
d. "Don't bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

d. "Don't bring up your memories of growing up with your grandmother; she will get depressed."

The type of grief which describes an individual's grief involving a deceased person whose loss cannot be openly mourned.

Disenfranchised Grief

In the Jewish community, the members of a grieving family all walk together for a short distance to symbolize their:
a. common loss.
b. unity in grief.
c. return to society.
d. community unity.

c. return to society.

Traditional Amish and Jewish cultures are similar in how they cope with death in that they both:
a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.
b. have elaborate funeral ceremonies in church to symbolize the last passage from Earth.
c. believe that grief is stronger for the whole community than for the individual family.
d. expect families to unite and cope together with only minimal support or interference from the rest of the community.

a. provide a lot of community support for the family over several months.

The Women's Health Initiative Study of Widowhood was a 3‐year longitudinal study designed to examine the all of the aspects of widows EXCEPT:
a. physical health.
b. mental health.
c. health outcomes.
d. community relations.

d. community relations.

Why do women have an easier time with the loss of their spouse than do men?
a. Women receive larger insurance payouts.
b. Women have better social networks.
c. Women experience less loneliness in general.
d. Women are more likely to remarry quickly.

b. Women have better social networks.

According to 2008 data, In the United States, _____ percent of men and _____ percent of
women 65 years of age and older were widowed.
a. 25; 66
b. 14; 42
c. 44; 32
d. 10; 23

b. 14; 42

Other than pining for the lost person, which of the following is another dimension of grief over death?
a. depression
b. insomnia
c. separation anxiety
d. death wish

c. separation anxiety

The view that grief proceeds in stages does NOT address:
a. the idea that grief is a unitary concept.
b. the invariant order in which grief proceeds.
c. the idea that grief gradually decreases across time.
d. the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.

...

Grief is most like:
a. an emotional volcano that erupts then slowly dies out.
b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.
c. a sequence of stages, each with a specific length of time.
d. a flood that gradually swells to an emotional pitch.

b. a roller coaster, because it goes up and down.

Approximately _____ of survivors experience complicated grief reactions.
a. 10 to 20%
b. 20 to 30%
c. 30 to 40%
d. 40 to 50%

a. 10 to 20%

Maciejewski & others advocate use of the term _____ to describe the type of grief that involves enduring despair and is still unresolved over an extended period of time.
a. depressive grief
c. extended grief
c. abnormal grief
d. prolonged grief

d. prolonged grief

Delilah lost her husband Hendricks to a bloody highway accident. Being just three years into marriage, she was devastated. Four months later, she was hassled by problems such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbance, problems in concentrating. Delilah is probably experiencing _____.
a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms
b. restoration‐oriented stress
c. disenfranchised grief
d. separation anxiety

a. post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms

Studies of the diversity of grieving patterns within and between cultures indicate that:
a. it is best to break bonds with the dead person.
b. prolonged contemplation of a close person's death leads to the best adjustment.
c. belief in an afterlife affords the most effective comfort in dealing with a loved person's death.
d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person's death.

d. there is no one, best way to grieve another person's death.

Approximately _____ of corpses are disposed of by cremation.
a. two‐thirds
b. one‐third
c. half
d. 90 percent

b. one-third

The crux of the recent controversy surrounding the funeral industry is whether:
a. cremation is prohibitively expensive.
b. closed caskets truly allow mourners to grieve in a healing way.
c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.
d. funeral arrangements can be made in advance of death.

c. funeral directors are simply out to benefit financially.

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