As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised what?
corn and hogs
Characterize what most white southerners were like
isolated lives, extended socializing and sermonizing at religious camp meetings
Describe who owned most slaves in the South
Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Why did the majority of southern whites owned no slaves?
they were too poor
Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of what?
bought their freedom
The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to what?
Describe life for free blacks living in the North
discrimination, denied right to vote
Slavery's greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, was what?
the sundering of families
By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located where?
Deep South, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana
Characterize the life of slaves in the mid-nineteenth century United States in detail
no civil rights, no political rights, can't testify in court
Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common where?
upper south and smaller plantations
Describe the family structure of most slaves?
stable two-parent household
Describe the various ways slaves fought the system of slavery
slowed pace of labor, broke equipment, stole, faked illness
As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, how did that affect the thinking of southerners?
reason to owning slaves; "they need help"; father/mother figure
What did the idea of transporting blacks back to Africa reflect
widespread Am. racism
What did William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to?
immediate abolition of slavery
In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, how did that reflect on southern society compared with the rest of the world?
opposition to slavery
Why did some in the north oppose the abolitionists?
creating disorder in Am.
In what year did John O' Sullivan coin the phrase Manifest Destiny?
The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to
attract the vote of the states' rightists
Relations between Britain and the United States in the nineteenth century could be characterized as
One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was?
Texas wanted to be a slave state
Arrange in chronological order the United States' acquisition of Oregon, Texas, and California
Texas, Oregon, California
What group that was instrumental in saving the soil of Oregon for the United States?
the primary group
Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by what?
the rich soil of the Willamette River Valley
What group was instrumental in securing the nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate
In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an Am. nation stretching across North America was called
In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the United States was established to the Pacific Ocean along the line of
Why did the British government decided to compromise on the ORegon Country border question?
they believed that the territory was not worth fighting for
In 1846, the United States went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons
ideology of Manifest Destiny, the deaths of Am. soldiers at hands of Mexicans, payment for damage claims against Mexican guilt, Polk wanted California
During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond to spot resolutions, indicating where Am. blood had been shed to provoke the war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by
When the war with Mexico began, what did President James K. Polk hope for?
to fight a limited war, ending with conquest of California
Describe the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ending the Mexican War
U.S. pay $15 million for cession of norther Mexico
The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared what?
slavery will be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the U.S
The largest single addition to American territory ever was?
Who were the first Old World Europeans to come to California?
In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, party leaders did what?
avoided public discussion of slavery
The United States' victory in the Mexican War resulted in all of the following
extending slavery into territories, possible split between Whigs and Democrats
The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have prohibited what?
slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War
The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession. Describe.
threatened to split national politics along North-South lines
According to the principle of popular sovereignty, the question of slavery in the territories would be determined by
the vote of the people in any given territory
in the 1848 presidential election, how did the Democratic and Whig parties address the issue of slavery? Why?
The event that threatened to destroy the longstanding equality of free and slave states in the United States Senate was the
discovery of gold
Which of the following were the issues that concerned southerners in 1849-1850?
balance in senate, CA?
The Free Soilers argued that slavery would...
cause more costly wage labor to wither away
Describe the South politically and economically by 1850
relatively well off
Harriet Tubman gained fame from?
helping slaves escape to Canada
John ZC. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved what?
the election of 2 presidents, one from the North, one from the South
Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in...
shift toward compromise in the North
An event that helped the cause of compromise in 1850, was when President Zachary Taylor did what?
In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories would be handled how?
The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning what?
the new Fugitive State Law
The Fugitive State Law of 1850 included all of the following provisions
denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves, denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf, the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape, a higher payment if officials determine blacks to be runaways
Many northern states passed personal liberty laws in response to the Compromise of 1850's provision regarding what?
The primary objective of Manifest Destiny expansionists in the 1850s was...
A scheme to acquire Cuba from Spain in the 1850s was known as?
Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory be decided how?
Undoubtedly the most durable offspring of the Kansas-Nebraska blunder was what?
As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, how did many northerners react?
they swore that they would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law
In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid 1850s what "document" identified with the proslavery element, and what group was associated with the antislavery free-soilers
the Lecompton Constitution
What was proposed in the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas?
that the state should have black bondage regardless of whether the document was approved or not
The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated that impracticality of what in the territories?
The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed what?
the fact that passions over slaver were becoming dangerously inflamed in the North and South
What political party did each figure belong to in the 1856 presidential campaign?
John C. Fremont
Stephen A. Douglas
The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was
As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because
of threats from the South that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war
In 1857, what was the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott decision?
Dred Scott was not a citizen of the U.S.
Arrange these events in chronological order:
Uncle Tom's Cabin, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott decision, Harpers Ferry raid
For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was?
that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory
What did Stephen A. Douglas argue in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
that action by territorial legislatures could keep slavery out of the territories
After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded what?
that the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" republicans
When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, what did the people do in South Carolina?
"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed what regarding the southern states?
that the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union
Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because?
the Compromise could allow slavery to expand into Latin America