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As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised what?

corn and hogs

Characterize what most white southerners were like

isolated lives, extended socializing and sermonizing at religious camp meetings

Describe who owned most slaves in the South


Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Why did the majority of southern whites owned no slaves?

they were too poor

Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of what?

bought their freedom

The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to what?

natural reproduction

Describe life for free blacks living in the North

discrimination, denied right to vote

Slavery's greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, was what?

the sundering of families

By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located where?

Deep South, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana

Characterize the life of slaves in the mid-nineteenth century United States in detail

no civil rights, no political rights, can't testify in court

Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common where?

upper south and smaller plantations

Describe the family structure of most slaves?

stable two-parent household

Describe the various ways slaves fought the system of slavery

slowed pace of labor, broke equipment, stole, faked illness

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, how did that affect the thinking of southerners?

reason to owning slaves; "they need help"; father/mother figure

What did the idea of transporting blacks back to Africa reflect

widespread Am. racism

What did William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to?

immediate abolition of slavery

In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, how did that reflect on southern society compared with the rest of the world?

opposition to slavery

Why did some in the north oppose the abolitionists?

creating disorder in Am.

In what year did John O' Sullivan coin the phrase Manifest Destiny?


The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to

attract the vote of the states' rightists

Relations between Britain and the United States in the nineteenth century could be characterized as


One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was?

Texas wanted to be a slave state

Arrange in chronological order the United States' acquisition of Oregon, Texas, and California

Texas, Oregon, California

What group that was instrumental in saving the soil of Oregon for the United States?

the primary group

Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by what?

the rich soil of the Willamette River Valley

What group was instrumental in securing the nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate

southern expansionists

In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an Am. nation stretching across North America was called

Manifest Destiny

In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the United States was established to the Pacific Ocean along the line of


Why did the British government decided to compromise on the ORegon Country border question?

they believed that the territory was not worth fighting for

In 1846, the United States went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons

ideology of Manifest Destiny, the deaths of Am. soldiers at hands of Mexicans, payment for damage claims against Mexican guilt, Polk wanted California

During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond to spot resolutions, indicating where Am. blood had been shed to provoke the war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by

Abraham Lincoln

When the war with Mexico began, what did President James K. Polk hope for?

to fight a limited war, ending with conquest of California

Describe the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, ending the Mexican War

U.S. pay $15 million for cession of norther Mexico

The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared what?

slavery will be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the U.S

The largest single addition to American territory ever was?

Mexican Cession

Who were the first Old World Europeans to come to California?


In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, party leaders did what?

avoided public discussion of slavery

The United States' victory in the Mexican War resulted in all of the following

extending slavery into territories, possible split between Whigs and Democrats

The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have prohibited what?

slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War

The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession. Describe.

threatened to split national politics along North-South lines

According to the principle of popular sovereignty, the question of slavery in the territories would be determined by

the vote of the people in any given territory

in the 1848 presidential election, how did the Democratic and Whig parties address the issue of slavery? Why?

remained silent

The event that threatened to destroy the longstanding equality of free and slave states in the United States Senate was the

discovery of gold

Which of the following were the issues that concerned southerners in 1849-1850?

balance in senate, CA?

The Free Soilers argued that slavery would...

cause more costly wage labor to wither away

Describe the South politically and economically by 1850

relatively well off

Harriet Tubman gained fame from?

helping slaves escape to Canada

John ZC. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved what?

the election of 2 presidents, one from the North, one from the South

Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in...

shift toward compromise in the North

An event that helped the cause of compromise in 1850, was when President Zachary Taylor did what?


In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories would be handled how?

popular sovereignty

The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning what?

the new Fugitive State Law

The Fugitive State Law of 1850 included all of the following provisions

denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves, denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf, the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape, a higher payment if officials determine blacks to be runaways

Many northern states passed personal liberty laws in response to the Compromise of 1850's provision regarding what?

runaway slaves

The primary objective of Manifest Destiny expansionists in the 1850s was...


A scheme to acquire Cuba from Spain in the 1850s was known as?

Austin Manifesto

Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory be decided how?

popular sovereignty

Undoubtedly the most durable offspring of the Kansas-Nebraska blunder was what?

Republican Party

As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, how did many northerners react?

they swore that they would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law

In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid 1850s what "document" identified with the proslavery element, and what group was associated with the antislavery free-soilers

the Lecompton Constitution

What was proposed in the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas?

that the state should have black bondage regardless of whether the document was approved or not

The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated that impracticality of what in the territories?

popular sovereignty

The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed what?

the fact that passions over slaver were becoming dangerously inflamed in the North and South

What political party did each figure belong to in the 1856 presidential campaign?

John C. Fremont
Millard Fillmore
Stephen A. Douglas
James Buchanan-Democratic

The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was


As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because

of threats from the South that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war

In 1857, what was the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott decision?

Dred Scott was not a citizen of the U.S.

Arrange these events in chronological order:

Uncle Tom's Cabin, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott decision, Harpers Ferry raid

For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was?

that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory

What did Stephen A. Douglas argue in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates?

that action by territorial legislatures could keep slavery out of the territories

After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded what?

that the North was dominated by "Brown-loving" republicans

When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, what did the people do in South Carolina?


"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed what regarding the southern states?

that the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union

Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because?

the Compromise could allow slavery to expand into Latin America

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