John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan
A plan that offered reinstatement for Southern states as long as 10% of the state swore allegiance to the Union. This was created in an attempt to create a moderate peace plan that wouldn't upset the South.
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Johnson's Reconstruction plan
Each remaining Confederate state could be readmitted to the Union if they would withdraw its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
A joint board of the United States Congress that played a major role in Reconstruction. Led by Radical Republicans it was created to "inquire into the condition of the States which formed the so-called Confederate States of America, and report whether they, or any of them, are entitled to be represented in either house of Congress."
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Civil Rights Act
In 1866 this was created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes. It also prohibited racial discrimination on jury selection. It was not really enforced and was really just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.
The head of the Freedmen's Bureau and a Union Civil War general
In 1866 Johnson angered Congress by refusing to sign into law legislation that increased the services and protection offered by the Freedmen's Bureau and the Civil Rights Bill to nullify Black Codes and give equal rights to African Americans
citizenship, due process, equal protection
1866 Congressional election
The Republican Party secured a 2/3 majority in both the House and the Senate, making Republican supported legislation veto proof. This helped the radical Republican agenda
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after., After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
put South under military rule and divided the South into 5 military districts, had the South set up new constitutions, said all males (black or white) could vote, said those who supported the Confederacy couldn't vote, made South states give equal rights to all citizens, made the South ratify the 14th Ammendment
Tenure of Office Act
In 1867 this was passed which limited the President's power by prohibiting the President from removing civil officers with out Senate consent. Goal was to bar Johnson from firing Secretary of War Stanton.
• Act was strictly political: Republicans wanted to protect their office holders (Sec. of War: Stanton) - in response: Johnson said it was unconstitutional and dismissed Stanton on his own
• Resulted in House impeachment of Johnson due to "high crimes and misdemeanors";
• 3-month trial in Senate - fell one vote short of impeachment because some thought impeachment set bad government precedent
election of 1868
War hero Ulysses Grant a Republican wins due to new half a million blacks who voted in their first election.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
a sum of money required of voters before they are permitted to cast a ballot
American Woman Suffrage Association
This group was formed in November 1869 in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Its founders, who supported the Fifteenth Amendment, included Lucy Stone, and Henry Blackwell. The this group was composed of staunch abolitionists, and strongly supported securing the right to vote for the Negro. They believed that the Fifteenth Amendment would be in danger of failing to pass in Congress if it included the vote for women. In 1890 the two groups did merge
National Woman Suffrage Association
an organization dedicated to gaining the right to vote for women and to have women's suffrage included in the 15th Amendment
southern whites who supported Republican policy through out reconstruction
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Blanche K Bruce
African American who was elected to serve in the Senate, represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 ; the first black to serve full term in Senate
African American churches
First social institution totally controlled by blacks
Southern Homestead Act of 1866
offered 80-acre grants to settlers, limited for the first year to freedmen and southern Unionists. The advantage was mostly symbolic though because the land that was offered was in infertile parts of the Lower South and few of them succeeded.
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
a political coalition in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era, who sought to oust the Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags. They were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, who were the conservative, pro-business wing of the Democratic Party.
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American [anti-immigrant]. Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 [on Stone Mountain, GA.] continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.
Nathan Bedford Forrest
first overall leader "grand wizard" of the Klu Klux Klan (KKK). Before the war he had grown wealth as a cotton planter and slave trader. During the war, he was one of the Confederacy's most brilliant generals. Massacred 300 black Union soldiers and many black women & children. Captured Fort Pillow TN 1864.
Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
Congress responded to the violence against the former slaves by passing legislation designed to enforce the rights of ex-slaves under the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments. These enforcement laws authorized federal prosecutions, military intervention, and martial law to suppress terrorist activities. In South Carolina, where the violence was the most prominent, federal troops occupied nine counties, made hundreds of arrests, and drove as many as two thousand members from the state
An American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper
Large scale corruption involving distillers and government officials that robbed the Treasury of millions of dollars in revenue from the excise tax from 1874-1875 by the government officials submitting false reports. The group included President Grant's personal secretary.
Depression of 1873
an economic crash that resulted from the overreaching of promoters to build more railroads, factories, and farms than the market could handle. The banks made imprudent loans to finance this and when profit was not realized, these loans went unpaid...Caused by over-speculation and too-easy credit.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the election og 1876 in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history. He agreed to end reconstruction and the military occupation of the South if he was chosen as the President by the committee
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
election of 1866
Johnson took to the road and used his infamous, "swing around the circle" speeches to attack Congressional opponents; appealed to racial prejudices of whites; Republicans accused Johnson of being a drunkard and a traitor and used antisouthern prejudices by employing a campaign tactic known as "waving the bloody shirt"-inflaming the hatreds of northern voters by reminding them of the hardships of war; Johnson won but Republicans owned both House and Senate
election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes., Hayes promises to end the Reconstruction and allows Southern states to establish the black codes. Caused the end of the Reconstruction in 1877
crisis of 1877
On an election day marred by widespread vote fraud and violent intimidation, Tilden received 250,000 more popular votes than Hayes. Republicans challenged the vote totals in the Electoral College. Tilden garnered 185 uncontested EV (one short of majority) to Hayes' 165. Problem rested in 20 disputed votes from FL, LA, SC, and OR. The crisis was unprecedented.
end of Reconstruction
Caused by breakdown of Republican unity, series of bank failures (panic of 1873), and Supreme Court undoing some of the social and political changes that Radicals made, , Eventually everyone became discontented with Reconstruction. It ended with the presidential election of 1876, when they withdrew troops from the South.