Genetics Cumulative final

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(T/F) Gene mapping can be accomplished through the crossover of sister chromatids.

False

(T/F) Linkage always occurs when two loci are on the same chromosome (from the practical standpoint of assortment and not the actual physical linkage).

False

(T/F) The cross GE/ge x ge/ge produces the following progeny: GE/ge 250, ge/ge 250, gE/ge 250, Ge/ge 250. From these data one could conclude that the G and E loci assort independently (are unlinked).

True

The cross GE/ge x ge/ge produces the following progeny: GE/ge 97, ge/ge 103, gE/ge 404, Ge/ge 396. From these data one could conclude that the recombinant progeny are gE/ge and Ge/ge.

False

(T/F) Dosage compensation is accomplished in humans by inactivation of the X chromosome.

True

(T/F) An example of organelle heredity involves kappa particles in Paramecium.

False

(T/F) Sex determination in Drosophila was elucidated by inducing non-disjunction events with the chromosomes.

True

(T/F) Primary sex ratio refers to the ratio at conception, while secondary sex ratio refers to the male/female ratio at birth.

True

(T/F) Researchers in the late 1950s isolated multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of the bacterium Shigella, which causes dysentery. Such resistance was caused by non-chromosomal factors which originated in E. coli, a different species. Infectious heredity would be considered most closely related to the bacterial antibiotic-resistant strains above.

True

What is a characteristic of non-mendelian inheritance?

Meiosis based on segregation.

What ratio of a dihybrid crossed (in a test cross) with a homozygous recessive shows (a) independent assortment (no linkage)? (b) what ratio shows complete linkage?

(a) 1:1:1:1
(b) 1:1

The following cross was performed: AaBb x aabb (trans-arrangement). If 2000 progeny were found, what results would show a theoretical perfect unity between the genes?

0 AaBb, 1000 Aabb, 1000 aaBb, 0 aabb

The following cross was performed: AaBb x aabb (trans-arrangement). If 2000 progeny were found, what numbers would represent a theoretical infinite distance between the genes?

500 AaBb, 500 Aabb, 500 aaBb, 500 aabb

Assume that a cross is made between AaBb and aabb plants and the offspring occur in the following numbers: 75 AaBb, 75 Aabb, 75 aaBb, 75 aabb (total= 300). These results would be consistent with...

100% recombination

A trait is thought to be on the X-chromosome of a dog. The following assumed genotype a and a cross is done to determine whether it is inherited by a mendelian or non-mendelian mechanism XaXa x XAY. What phenotypic result would indicate it's non-mendelian?

100% "a"

In Drosophila, the following ratios produce which sex? 1.0, 0.75, 0.33, 1.33, 0.5

female, intersex, male, female, male

Turner's syndrome in humans, which leads to high prenatal mortality and sterility, is caused by which chromosomal condition?

45, X

The protenor mode of sex determination is the

XX/XO scheme

The Lygaeus mode of sex determination is the

XX/XY scheme

In birds, sex is determined by a ZW chromosome scheme, which is much like the typical XY scheme seen in humans and other organisms, however the system is reversed. Males are ZZ and females are ZW. What would be ratio of sex-linked trait operating similar to color-blindness in humans btwn a heterozygous male and wild-type female?

1:1 colorblind male to colorblind female

Cytoplasmic inheritance occurs because of

differences in the volume of cytoplasm in the gametes of the sexes, killing of the organelles of one mating type by another, silencing of the organelles of one mating type by another

According to the Lyon hypothesis, a woman who is heterozygote for a gene on her X chromosome will express _______. Would your answer change if she were homozoygous D or R?

(a) the dominant allele in some and the recessive in others.
(b) yes

Chromosome inactivation, according to the Lyon Hypothesis, occurs...

in somatic cells early in embryonic development

The "Out of Africa" theory of Homo sapiens origins is based in part on two pieces of DNA evidence. The first is from the female and is based on ____, the second is from the males and is based on _____.

mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome DNA

Construct a map of chromosome from the following recombination frequencies:
h--g 30, f--g 23, m--g 24, h--f 8, h--m 7

h-------mf-----------------------g

Two genes Aa and Bb are next to each other on a chromosome in a cis arrangement in an F1 generation. They are crossed with a pure recessive strain. The crossover percentage is 8%.
(a) non-recombinant pairs
(b) recombinant pairs
(c) assuming 500 progeny, what is the correct # of phenotype with offspring

(a) AaBb, aabb
(b) Aabb, aaBb
(c) AaBb 230, Aabb 20, aaBb 20, aabb 230

One female (alpha) dextral (mother is true breeding dextral line) and one sinstral (alpha) male (father is true breeding sinstral) Limnaea pregra snails were crossed to produce F1s. The F1s only produced sinstral snails in the F2s.
(a) alpha female's father must have
(b) alpha male must have

(a) homozygous recessive
(b) homozygous recessive

A similarity between extranuclear inheritance and extranuclear organelle (mitochondria and chloroplast) inheritance is that the effects are caused through cytoplasmic inheritance. A key difference is...

In maternal effect inheritance the gene affecting the trait is transmitted in the nucleus, whereas in organelle inheritance it is transmitted by cytoplasmic inheritance.

Generally, human allelic variation is highest in ____ and lowest in ____.

Africa, Americas

(T/F) The law of segregation says that two alleles between two parents have a 50/50 chance of being passed onto the next generation.

False

(T/F) Meiosis concerns the maintenance and preservation of the individual, while mitosis is concerned of the preservation of the species.

False

(T/F) The Law of Independent Assortment says that given two genes in two parents of an offspring the alleles of one gene have no influence on whether the others in the other parent are being passed on.

False

(T/F) Of the following three traits--sex linked, sex influenced, sex limited--only sex linked is carried on the sex chromosome.

True

(T/F) IQ is unrelated to genotype.

False

(T/F) An example of cultural inheritance is the Bill of Rights.

True

(T/F) A protein is composed of three other proteins. The whole makes a unique shape that cannot be accounted for based on each of the three parts together. This is an example of additive genetic interactions.

False

(T/F) The internal conditions of a cell are types of environmental effects on genetic expression.

True

Free earlobes are D to attached earlobes and the ability to roll ones tongue is D to the inability to do so. These are both classical Mendelian systems. A father with an unknown genotype for free earlobes with the inability to roll his tongue and a mother heterozygous for both traits have a son with attached earlobes and the ability to roll his tongue and a daughter with free earlobes and an inability to roll her tongue.
(a) father's genotype for earlobe is not
(b) Law of Segregation is seen by...
(c) Law of Independent Assortment is seen by...
(d) If these were mice instead of humans and the son was backcrossed to his mother, the earlobe ratio would be

(a) homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive
(b) the mother's earlobe phenotype compared with her children's earlobes
(c) the mother's phenotype for tongue rolling compared with her children's earlobe phenotype
(d) 1:1

Using the analogy of a computer, formal inheritance would best be described by the passing on of...

organization and order unique to the computer.

Life exhibits transient motion, that is, it...

changes itself

Living things exhibit 3 types of inheritance...

material, formal, cultural

A patron is reading a menu at a restaurant. Which two types of inheritance in the proper order is analogous to this?

formal, material

Bacteria have one large circular chromosome. which of Mendel's four laws do not pertain to bacteria.

None of Mendel's Laws pertain to bacteria.

Given a 1:1 ratio in a monohybrid cross, which of Mendel's Laws do not cause it?

4th

If the 2nd law fails, which ratios would be altered and which would stay the same?

phenotypic, genotypic

three traits are on a plant. Another plant with the same three traits was crossed to it. The monohybrid crosses for each of the three traits between the plants were: Aa x Aa; Bb x bb; Cc x cc. Using the product law, which would allow you to calculate the phenotypic ratios in the offspring?

3:1 x 1:1 x 1:1

Which of the following does not belong: chromatin, chromosome, centriole, kinetochore, spindle fibers

chromatin

what traits can be passed on to offspring through both sexes: sex-linked, sex-influenced, sex-limited

all of them can be.

a person plants flower seeds with usually red flowers. What would model complete penetrance vs variable expressivity best?

All seeds germinate and produce red, orange, and white flowers on different plants.

There is an effort underway to determine if life exists on Mars. Pretend an organism is found that has a triplet chromosome group (it is triploid) for every type of chromosome instead of a pair (diploid) that all eukaryotes on earth have. Which of the three laws would be most effected?

1st

A left-handed person comes from two parents who are both of ancestry true-breeding for left-handed alleles. What genotype would make the person be left-handed. RR, Rr, rr

None

In comparing genetic and environmental effects...

Genes set the boundaries (limits) of an organism while the environment determines the degree to which these are met.

Typical ratios resulting from epistatic interactions in dihybrid crosses would be....

9:3:4, 9:7, 12:3:1, 9:3:3:1

The following phenotype ratios were obtained from a cross: red flowers/purple stems (12/16), pink flowers/purple stems (4/16). What is the number of genes and minimum number of alleles operating here?

2, 3

In haploid-diploid genetics of the hymenopteran group of insects (ants, bees, wasps), super-sisters are:

75% related to their supersisters, 25% related to their subsisters, and 50% related to their mother.

At the beginning of meiosis, there are 4 spermatogonium and 4 oogonium. At completion, how many sperm and egg will result?

16, 4

What is not a possibility for ABO blood group inheritance?

O child from B and AB parents

F2 generation
Male, wild, 123
male, yellow, 116
female, wild, 114
female, yellow, 110
What is the F1 female and male?

female in F1: homozygous recessive
male in F1: hemizygous recessive

Genes are concepts, meaning:

There is actually something there but all we understand is a collection of inferences from experiments. No one has directly experienced them.

Name the single individual whose work in the early 1900's pioneered sex inheritance and united classical Mendelian genetics with cytogenetics. With what organism did this person work?

Thomas Hunt Morgan, Drosophila

(T/F) Griffith discovered DNA as the transforming principle.

False

(T/F) In the Hershey-Chase experiment, DNA was labeled with 35S and protein with 32P.

False

(T/F) In RNA, there is one -OH group less on the sugar than DNA.

False

(T/F) Avery, McLeod and McCarty and Hershey-Chase determined that DNA is the genetic material in eukaryotes.

False

(T/F) When considering the structure of RNA, we would say that the two strands are anti-parallel.

False

(T/F) The four characteristics of a hereditary molecule are: it must replicate accurately, it must be capable of change, it must store information, and it must be capable of expression.

True

(T/F) Bean plants (vicia faba) were used to show semi-conservative replication in prokaryotes.

False

(T/F) Endonucleases are highly specific in the DNA sequence they recognize.

True

(T/F) The unique piece of information a Northern provides compared to other RNA analysis techniques is that it tells one the size of the RNA.

True

The final step of the proof of DNA as the genetic material in the Avery, McLeod, and McCarty experiment was the RNase treatment of the filtrate and transformation of type IIR cells into type IIIS cells

False

If you have a 200 ul sample of double-stranded DNA. The A260 of 1 ul=0.6. How many micrograms of DNA do you have?

(0.6 x 50)=3 = 30ng x 200 = 6000 / 1000 = 6.0

Experiments with the Tobacco Mosaic Virus showed...

RNA is the transforming molecule in some cases

Microchip DNA analysis gives the advantage over other RNA analysis techniques of:

global gene expression

Regarding the structure of DNA, the covalently arranged combination of a deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base, and the phosphate group would be called a:

nucleotide

What conclusion could be drawn if Hershey and Chase had found only 35S in their bacterial cells?

Protein is the genetic material.

If 10% of the nitrogenous bases in a sample of DNA from a particular organism is guanosine, what percentage should be adenosine?

40%

In Taylor, Woods, Hughs experiment, conservative replication would have been shown if:

both strands of the DNA in a single chromatid of a chromosome were labeled.

What statement best describes the structure of a DNA molecule?

DNA is composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone with bases projecting toward the inside of the backbone.

Why is an RNA primer considered essential for DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase III?

The enzyme requires a free 3'-OH group.

DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides...

to the 3' end of the RNA primer

When DNA polymerase I backfills the former RNA primer with DNA it uses:

the 3' C of the DNA of the previous Okazaki fragment to prime the reaction

In the Meselson-Stahl experiment, which mode of replication was eliminated based on data derived after melting the two strands of DNA apart and running single stranded DNA through the CsCl gradient?

Dispersive

Which terms accurately reflect the nature of DNA replication in prokaryotes?

bidirectional, semiconservative

The discontinuous aspect (the need of a leading and lagging strand) of replication of DNA in the cell is caused by:

the 5' to 3' directional basis of replication

Which of the following DNA fragments would be located third down from the beginning (negative terminal) of the gel? 3, 10, 1, 5, 0.5

3kb

After removal of RNA primers, Okazaki fragments are joined through a reaction that involves which one of the following enzymes.

DNA ligase

In mammalian cells, which DNA polymerase corresponds to the primase in prokaryotes?

alpha

Nucleic acids were shown to e the genetic material by:

Hershey and Chase, and Avery, McLeod, and McCarthy

DNA and RNA differ in the -OH number on their

2' C

What is the complemenatary DNA sequence to 5' ATGCTTGACTG 3'

3' TACGAACTGAC 5'

What observation did Griffith make in his experiments with Steptococcus pneumoniae?

The mouse did not survive when injected with a mixture of live, avirulent (rough) Streptococcus pneumoniae and heat-killed, virulent Strep. pneumoniae.

The key to sequencing with ddNTP's is the removal of

the removal of the 3' -OH

What is used to store all the genetic information from an organism for study?

a library

Bacteria containing plasmids with DNA inserts are forced to maintain this DNA because of

an antibiotic resistance gene on the plasmids conferring resistance to antibiotics

In the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)/holmes ribgrass (HR) virus study, the purpose of the reconstituted hybrid virus allows one to

ask whether RNA or protein directed synthesis of the new virus

In the Meselson-Stahl experiment, which mode of replication was eliminated based on data derived after one generation of replication using double-stranded DNA?

Conservative

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