CH 16 The Origin of the Solar System

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How did the solar nebula get cleared of material?

All of the below

Why do we reject the formation of planets as proposed by Buffon (the passing star hypothesis)?

Material pulled out of the sun would be too hot to condense and planetary systems are common, whereas near star collisions are rare.

What is the origin of the atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium in the perspiration that exits your body during an astronomy exam?

The hydrogen nuclei were produced a few minutes after the big bang event 13.7 billion years ago, and the oxygen and sodium nuclei were synthesized inside stars more than 4.6 billion years ago.

Potassium 40 decays to calcium 40 with a half-life of 1.3 billion years. Use this diagram to determine the age of a rock in which only 12.5% of its original potassium 40 remains.

The rock is 3.9 billion years old.

Why is the dust disk around Epsilon Eridani shown here brighter than the star Epsilon Eridani at far infrared wavelengths?

The dust disk is cooler and has more surface area than its star.

Compare the two radial velocity curves shown here for the stars 51 Pegasi and Upsilon Andromedae. Why is the curve for Upsilon Andromedae more complex than that of 51 Pegasi?

Upsilon Andromedae has more than one planet.

Which properties of the solar system are accounted for in this simple series of three diagrams depicting the solar nebula hypothesis?

all of the below

Which of the following is NOT a property associated with terrestrial planets?

They have low density.

Where are most asteroids located?

between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

Radiometric dating of rock samples indicates that the solar system formed about 4.56 billion years ago. Which rock samples have this age?

meteorites

How does the solar nebula theory account for the drastic differences between terrestrial and Jovian planets?

all of the below

Which of the following is the most likely major heat source that melted early formed planetesimals?

the decay of short-lived unstable isotopes

Which of the following accurately describes the differentiation process?

High-density materials sink toward the center and low-density materials rise toward the surface of a molten body.

(a) Which was an objection to the passing star hypothesis?
(b) Which was an objection to the nebular hypothesis?

(a) all of the above
(b) The angular momentum problem.

(a) What produced the helium in the sun's atmosphere?

(b) What produced the helium in Jupiter's atmosphere?

(c) What produced the helium in the sun's core?

it was among the gases from which it formed

it was captured directly from the solar nebula

nuclear fusion

(a) What produced the iron in Earth's core?

(b) What produced the gold and silver in Earth's crust?

some nuclear fusion in a massive star's core, mostly supernovae

supernovae

What evidence can you cite that disks of gas are common around young stars?

All of the above are evidence.

(a) Why is the sun's equator nearly in the plane of Earth's orbit?

(b) According to which theory should the sun's equator be nearly in the plane of Earth's orbit?

The planets formed from a disk of gas that surrounded the sun as it formed.

the solar nebula hypothesis

(a) According the solar nebula hypothesis, which of the following is true?

(b) What is the reason for the answer to the previous question?

(c) Is there any evidence to support the answers to the previous questions?

Planetary systems should be common.

According to the theory, planets form from the gases surrounding a star after it forms.

Yes; disks of gas and dust and actual planets have been discovered orbiting other stars.

(a) How old do astronomers think the solar system is?

(b) How do astronomers estimate the age of the solar system?

almost 5 billion years old

from radioactive dating

(a) How do you think the age of another planetary system would compare to the age of our solar system?

(b) What is the reason for the answer to the previous question?

It could be any of the above.

Our solar system is about halfway through its evolution, and our sun is probably a second- or third-generation star.

(a) Where are craters are found?

(b) What are most craters in the solar system are caused by?

(c) Why are there so many cratered surfaces in the solar system?

most solid surfaces in the solar system

impacts from space

There was much debris left over from the formation of the planets and moons, and many collisions in the early solar system.

(a) Which is in the early stages of star formation?

(b) Which may be home to planets that have already formed?

a hot disk of gas and dust

a cold dust or debris disk

What evidence can you cite that planets orbit other stars?

all of the above

Which is the process that cleared the solar nebula away and ended planet building?

all of the above cleared the nebula

(a) What is the separation of material in a planet called?

(b) Why would you expect the process in the previous question to happen?

differentiation

all of the above

(a) According to the condensation sequence, which substance would condense out of the solar nebula first?

(b) According to the condensation sequence, which substance would first condense out of the solar nebula farthest from the sun?

(c) If you visited another solar system in the act of planetary formation, would you expect to see the condensation sequence at work?

nickel

troilite

Yes, since it is based on temperature and therefore on distance from the star.

(a) Which planets are more dense?

(b) Based on the solar nebula theory, what is the reason for the observation in the previous question?

terrestrial planets

Both of the above are true.

(a) Where in the solar system are asteroids found?

(b) How does the solar nebula theory help you understand the location of asteroids?

mostly in the belt between Mars and Jupiter, but in other orbits as well

Both of the above are true.

(a) Which kind of planet has rings?

(b) What is the reason for the answer to the previous question?

a Jovian planet

Jovian planets are more massive.

(a) Solid particles sticking together is called which of the following?

(b) Particles growing by addition of material an atom or molecule at a time from a surrounding gas is called which of the following?

accretion

condensation

(a) Which planet is shown in the figure?

(b) What indicates that this planet formed far from the sun?

Saturn

It has rings and therefore must be massive, and massive planets form far from the sun.

(a) Which planet is shown the figure below?

(b) Why do astronomers assume the surface of the planet in the figure is old?

(c) When did the majority of the craters on the planet in the figure form?

Mercury

It is covered with craters.

evenly throughout the entire history of the solar system

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