|acoustic encoding|| the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words|
note:what is frequently used for short term memory.
|Visual encoding|| the mental representation of information as images|
ex: remembering stop sign as an octagon
|semantic encoding|| the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words|
ex:seeing dog and remembering it by tying it to cute things in your memory
|storage|| process of maintaining info in memory over time.|
note: 2nd step of basic mem. proecesses
|retrieval|| the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory|
note: can be recall or recognition.
|recall|| retrieve memory w/o help or clues|
ex: written exam
|recognition|| a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned|
ex:multiple choice test.
|episodic memory|| memory of personal experiences|
ex: "there was this one time when the same thing happened to me."
|Semantic memory|| memory for general knowledge|
ex: wrench=tool, wordl=round w/o remembering event
|procedural memory|| Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection|
ex: walking, typist typing
|explicit memory|| memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"|
ex: used when taking exams
|Implicit memory|| retention independent of conscious recollection|
ex: muscle memory/ amnesia girl remembering not to shake doc's hand because he had a tack in it last time. DKN why not to but does.
|Levels of Procession model|| view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming info is mentally processed|
note: describes storage..more thought about better remembered.
|Maintenance rehearsal|| Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory|
ex: learning a phone # repeat a little and remember for a while.
|Elaborative rehearsal|| Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the material to be remembered|
ex: list of words-> remember what's useful on desert island.
|Information processing model|| a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved|
note: extern. stimuli-> sensory ->short term-> long term
|Sensory memory|| the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system|
ex: eyes remembering actual images in consecutive order
|Short-term memory|| activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten|
note: made longer by modes of rehearsal
|chunking|| The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember|
ex: boy kicked mother in shin on sunday = three parts... boy kicking...mother...on sunday.
|immediate memory span|| the maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items|
|Brown-Peterson procedure|| a method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short-term memory|
note: 18 sec
|Long-term memory|| the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system|
ex: where retrieval retrieves info from
|Transfer-appropriate processing model|| a model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process matches the original encoding process|
note: good encoding-good retrieval
|Parallel distributed processing model|| knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units and all operating in parallel|
note: video clip of childhood mem. being actually chain of attached neurons glued together
|Primacy effect|| The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.|
note: part of serial-position curve
|Recency effect|| The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.|
note: part of serial-position curve
|Context dependent|| the environment acts as a retrieval cue. This means that it is easier to remember information when you are in the location (context) where you originally learned that information.|
Ex: remember stuff at home before test, but in classroom forget it all.
|State dependent|| memories that are recalled better when the mood in which they were original it encoded is recreated|
ex: depressed people remember depressing things
|Schemas|| conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world|
ex: connotation everything we learn to other words we learn
|Decay|| Theory which states that memory fades and/or disappears over time if it is not used or accessed.|
ex: getting orlder
|Retroactive interference|| The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.|
ex: can remem. french words learned this term, but forget spanish terms learned earlier.
|Proactive interference|| the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information|
ex: french words learning now make learning german hard.
|Anterograde amnesia|| loss of memory for events immediately following a trauma|
ex: HM and his cut hippocampus
|Retrograde amnesia|| loss of memories that were stored before a traumatic event|
note: due to damage to diff. parts of brain can be partial
|Mnemonics|| a method or system for improving the memory|
ex: porn for proactive because of old and retroactive because of new.