the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
note:what is frequently used for short term memory.
the mental representation of information as images
ex: remembering stop sign as an octagon
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
ex:seeing dog and remembering it by tying it to cute things in your memory
process of maintaining info in memory over time.
note: 2nd step of basic mem. proecesses
the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory
note: can be recall or recognition.
retrieve memory w/o help or clues
ex: written exam
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned
ex:multiple choice test.
memory of personal experiences
ex: "there was this one time when the same thing happened to me."
memory for general knowledge
ex: wrench=tool, wordl=round w/o remembering event
Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
ex: walking, typist typing
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
ex: used when taking exams
retention independent of conscious recollection
ex: muscle memory/ amnesia girl remembering not to shake doc's hand because he had a tack in it last time. DKN why not to but does.
Levels of Procession model
view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming info is mentally processed
note: describes storage..more thought about better remembered.
Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory
ex: learning a phone # repeat a little and remember for a while.
Rehearsal in which meaning is added to the material to be remembered
ex: list of words-> remember what's useful on desert island.
Information processing model
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved
note: extern. stimuli-> sensory ->short term-> long term
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
ex: eyes remembering actual images in consecutive order
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before information is stored or forgotten
note: made longer by modes of rehearsal
The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
ex: boy kicked mother in shin on sunday = three parts... boy kicking...mother...on sunday.
immediate memory span
the maximum number of items a person can recall perfectly after one presentation of the items
a method for determining how long unrehearsed information remains in short-term memory
note: 18 sec
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
ex: where retrieval retrieves info from
Transfer-appropriate processing model
a model of memory that suggests that a critical determinant of memory is how well the retrieval process matches the original encoding process
note: good encoding-good retrieval
Parallel distributed processing model
knowledge is represented as connections among thousands of interacting processing units and all operating in parallel
note: video clip of childhood mem. being actually chain of attached neurons glued together
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
note: part of serial-position curve
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
note: part of serial-position curve
the environment acts as a retrieval cue. This means that it is easier to remember information when you are in the location (context) where you originally learned that information.
Ex: remember stuff at home before test, but in classroom forget it all.
memories that are recalled better when the mood in which they were original it encoded is recreated
ex: depressed people remember depressing things
conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world
ex: connotation everything we learn to other words we learn
Theory which states that memory fades and/or disappears over time if it is not used or accessed.
ex: getting orlder
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
ex: can remem. french words learned this term, but forget spanish terms learned earlier.
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
ex: french words learning now make learning german hard.
loss of memory for events immediately following a trauma
ex: HM and his cut hippocampus
loss of memories that were stored before a traumatic event
note: due to damage to diff. parts of brain can be partial
a method or system for improving the memory
ex: porn for proactive because of old and retroactive because of new.