Digestive System

Created by treskirby 

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The peritoneal cavity

like the plural & pericardial cavitiesis a potential space containing serous fluid.

Obstruction of the hepatopancreatic sphincter impairs digestion by reducing the avilability of

pancreatic juice and bile.

List the four layers (from innermost to outermost) of the gastrointestinal tract.

Mucosa, submucosae, muscularis externa, and serosa

Hormones of the GI system are produced and secreted by which of the following cells?

Enteroendocrine

Chyme exiting the stomach enters the:

small intestine.

Name the third muscle layer unique to the stomach (and not elsewhere in the GI tract).

Oblique

The major site of digestion and absorption in the GI tract is the:

small intestine.

The circular folds found in the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption are called:

plicae circulares.

Which organ of the GI system absorbs water and electrolytes and contains bacteria that produce some vitamins?

Large intestine

Which physiologic sphincter prevents reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus?

Lower esophageal (gastroesophageal)

The major digestive function of this organ is the production of bile.

Liver

Name the first part of the small intestine, which is only 8-11 inches long.

Duodenum

During which phase in the control of the digestive system would the sight and smell of food initiate reflexes to aid digestion?

Cephalic

Considered the third division of the ANS, this nervous system is unique to the digestive system.

Enteric

In general, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system would __________ digestive activity.

depress

Intrinsic reflexes, where a stimulus in one part of the GI tract produces an effect in another part of the GI tract, are known as:

short reflexes.

Responses generated in the CNS that travel to the gut via extrinsic nerves are called:

long reflexes.

Which of the following meals takes longer to digest?

Cheeseburger, fries, and chocolate milkshake

Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter at which of the following synapses?

Sympathetic postganglionic synapse

Enteric neurons that are excitatory to smooth muscle release which of the following neurotransmitters?

ACh and substance P

Which of the following intestinal hormones stimulates the secretion of insulin?

GIP

Which of the following GI hormones stimulates the gall bladder to contract?

CCK

Motility in the stomach includes:

peristalsis and receptive relaxation.

During the cephalic phase of control, will nerves or hormones mediate the response in the stomach?

Nerves

Will a neural response during the cephalic phase involve a short or long reflex?

Long reflex

During the gastric phase of control, distention in the stomach will elicit a response using which of the following mechanisms?

Both nerves and hormones

Which hormone, released in response to stomach distention, increases gastric motility?

Gastrin

The presence of fat in the small intestine causes intestinal cells to release the hormone __________, which slows gastric emptying.

CCK

During the gastric phase of GI tract control, which of the following hormones increases activity in the ileum and relaxes the ileocecal sphincter?

Gastrin

During a meal, which type of motility propels the feces into the rectum for evacuation?

Mass movement

During the defecation reflex, which anal sphincter relaxes involuntarily?

Internal

Vomiting involves which of the following processes?

Reverse peristalsis

Which division of the autonomic nervous system causes production of large amounts of watery saliva containing enzymes?

PNS

Which of the following stimuli would inhibit salivation?

Fear

Histamine is secreted by which cells in the stomach mucosa?

Paracrine

What cells in the gastric pits and glands produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?

Parietal

What substances are absorbed from the stomach?

Aspirin and alcohol

Pernicious anemia is caused by lack of:

intrinsic factor.

During the cephalic phase, long neural reflexes directly increase secretion of HCL and pepsinogen by stimulating which types of stomach cells?

Chief cells and parietal cells

Which of these hormones stimulates a bicarbonate-rich secretion from the pancreas?

Secretin

When CCK acts on the pancreas, which cells does it stimulate (to produce an enzyme-rich solution from the pancreas)?

Acinar cells

The primary secretion of the large intestine is __________, which functions in protection and lubrication.

bicarbonate and potassium

In carbohydrate metabolism, sucrose is digested to:

glucose and fructose.

Most fats are digested to:

monoglycerides and fatty acids.

Polar substances are absorbed by which of the following processes?

Carrier-mediated transport

Digestion of starch begins in the mouth because of what salivary enzyme?

Amylase

Digestion of proteins in the stomach is caused by which enzyme?

Pepsin

Transcellular transport of water in the small intestine depends on the active transport of what ion?

Sodium

All of the following are necessary for fat digestion and absorption, except:

trypsin.

Unlike short- and medium-chain fatty acids, triglycerides (packaged as chylomicrons within the cell) enter what vessel after exiting the intestinal cell?

Lacteals

Resident bacteria in the large intestine synthesize this vitamin, which is necessary for the synthesis of some clotting proteins in the liver.

Vitamin K

Which of the following major pancreatic proteases cleaves one peptide at a time?

Carboxypeptidase

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