Applied Behavior Analysis Final

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Negative reinforcement involves

removing an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior

The key distinction between negative and positive reinforcement is

The type of stimulus change occurs following a response

Negative reinforcement can be differentiated from punishment by carefully attending to the role of aversive stimulus. In a negative reinforcement contingency, the aversive stimulus ____________, whereas in a punishment contingency, the aversive stimulus ________.

Is removed following the target behavior; is present before the target behavior

Joe hates his new alarm clock. This morning, the annoying buzzer sounded at 6:00 a.m.. Joe hit the snooze button to catch a few more minutes of sleep. He opened his eyes and saw that the clock read 6:14 am. Knowing the buzzer would sound again at 6:15. Because he hates the sound of the alarm, he reaches over and shuts of the alarm before it can sound again. Turning off the alarm before it can sound again is an example of :

Free operant avoidance

Can an aversive stimulus function both as a negative and positive reinforcer?

Yes

Joey forgot to clean his room before leaving school. When he returned from school in the afternoon, he quickly cleaned his room before his mother came home to avoid a reprimand from her. Is the reprimand, in this case, an unconditioned negative reinforcer?

No, conditioned negative reinforcer

Sandy asks her mother for help washing the dishes to reduce the amount of time she has to spend in the kitchen doing chores. This is an example of a

socially mediated reinforcer.

To maximize the effectiveness of negative reinforcement for a given response, is it important that there is a great difference in the level of stimulation present before the response as compared to after the response?

No

Can negative reinforcement be used to teach both appropriate and inappropriate behaviors?

Yes

What is the difference between an escape contingency and an avoidance contingency?

Escape contingencies respond in the presence of aversive stimuli and avoidance contingencies respond in the absence of aversive stimuli

Give a novel example of how negative reinforcement could be used to teach appropriate behavior.

If Mary does her homework every night she will not have to stay in class during gym to finish it.

The schedule of reinforcement is a rule that describes

A rule that describes a contingency of reinforcement

Continuos reinforcement provides reinforcement for

Each occurrence of a behavior

Applied behavior analysts use intermittent reinforcement to

maintain and established behaviors

The four basic schedules of intermittent reinforcement are

fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval

A post reinforcement is a pause when

the subject does not respond for a period of time following a response

With variable reinforcement, a number representing the ______ number of responses required for reinforcement is determined.

Average

One way researcher's thin schedules of reinforcement are by gradually increasing the response ratio or the duration of the time interval. True or false?

True

A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following

A fixed duration of time

Define fixed and variable ratios of schedule reinforcement.

a fixed ratios is a schedule of reinforcement requiring a fixed number of responses for reinforcement and a variable ratios of reinforcement requires a varied number of responses for reinforcement which varies around a random number, the mean number of responses gives reinforcement.

Define fixed and variable interval schedules of reinforcement.

A Variable interval produces reinforcement for the correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time. The mean duration of the interval is used to describe the schedule. A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement is when the reinforcement is delivered for the first correct response emitted following the passage or fixed duration of time since last response.

What is scallop effect and where would you expect to see it?

The Scallop effect occurs when responding is very slow or nonexistent immediately following reinforcement, then progressively increases and is finally rapid just before another reinforcement is due.

Give an example of ratio schedule reinforcement and how ratio strain could occur as reinforcement is thinned.

ratio schedule require a certain amount of responses before reinforcement. Ratio strain is when there is an abrupt increase to ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules. A student is asked to answer 10 questions and contingent of that task completion he is asked to answer 50.

POsitive punishment can be defined as

Delivery of a stimulus after a behavior that decreases the occurrence of the behavior.

A statement that is not included in procedural guideline for punishment is

Use the highest intensity of punishment that is effective.

Negative punishment can be defined as

Removal of stimulus after behavior that decreased the occurrence of behavior.

What is not a part of factors that influence effectiveness of punishment?

punishment for alternative behaviors.

Mrs. Mody decided that because Johnny dumped the contents of his glue container on the floor he would not only have to clean up his work space, but clean the entire classroom. The punishment procedure used is called

Restitutional overcorrection

A decrease in the future frequency of the occurrence of a behavior must be observed before a consequence-based intervention qualifies as punishment. True or false?

True

What are some potential side effects of using punishment as a treatment intervention?

Modeling, reinforcer for the one punishing, increase in aggression escape and avoidance, behavioral contrast.

Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus is also known as

Type II Punishment and negative punishment

The key behavioral effect of punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus

A decreased frequency, duration, or intensity of behaviors targeted for punishment

The key difference between non-exclusion and exclusion time-out is

With non exclusion the individual is not totally removed from the instructional environment and with exclusion the individual is at least partially removed.

Contingent observation involves

The individual remaining in the setting but losing participation privileges for a period of time

The disadvantages of using a time out can include

lost instructional time and public perception

Making additional reinforcers available non contingently that are available for removal during a response cost procedure are known as

bonus response cost

If a time out does not result in a decreased probability of the target behavior occurring it is still considered punishment. True or False?

False

Removing a student from the instructional setting contingent on the emission of a target behavior is an example of a non exclusion time out. True or False?

False

Planned ignoring involves the removal of social reinforcers. True or False?

True

An unwanted side effect that can occur with use of punishment is

increased aggression

When the behavior of any individual results in a time out for all

Group Time Out

One of the steps to complete before beggining a time out procedure

Obtaining permission

Reinforcers that can be lost during a response cost procedure

Bonus Response Cost

A procedure that involves obstructing the view of the individual in a time-out

Partition Time Out

A necessary component of the "fair pair" rule

Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors

Losing access to positive reinforcement and watching others earn rewards

Contingent observation

Punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus

Type II punishment

Removal from the classroom but within range to hear instruction

Hallway Time Out

Loss of a particular stimulus

Withdrawal of a specific reinforcer

Why is non exclusion time out recommended the first choice when implementing time out?

Most powerful and least restrictive

Why might planned ignoring be difficult to implement successfully?

Because it may reinforce more undesirable behaviors

Why is it important to enrich the time in setting?

It serves as reinforcement to stay in the time in setting.

Timmy is a bright student who is the "class clown". He often blurts out answers before getting permission. In addition, he makes off color jokes to get other students to laugh. Pick a procedure to use to decrease his talk outs and jokes,

...

A discriminative stimulus is

a stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced

A stimulus delta is

a stimulus in the presence of which a response will not be reinforced

Operant stimulus control has been achieved when

a response occurs more frequently in the presence of a specific stimulus, but rarely occurs in the absence of the stimulus.

Stimulus generalization has occurred when

The same response occurs int he presence of two different, but similar, stimuli.

Stimulus equivalence

Means that a person responds accurately to untrained and non reinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following training on different stimulus-stimulus relations.

What constitutes a prompt?

Physically helping

After closing the lid, Mary turns the dial to the correct cycle. Prior to the training session, Ashley painted a red arrow to the correct setting to help Mary remember where she set the dial. Mary successfully set the dial to the correct setting without any additional assistance. This an example of

Stimulus prompt

Taking a line drawing of the word bed, and changing it into the letters, most-to-least prompting and a child tracing his name, then removing the letters, until he can do it alone are examples of

stimulus fading

Describe most-to-least prompting that you can use to teach a child to write his name

...

Describe how you might add a stimulus prompt to teacher the learner to write his name.

...

Define response prompts and identify two types of response prompts.

...

Discuss the intrusiveness of different types of prompt s and two consideration in choosing a particular prompt.

...

Describe fading.

...

A method of research in which a problem is identified, data gathered. a question formed and tested

Scientific Method

The simplest theory that fits the facts of a problem is the one that should be used.

Parsimony

Derived from, or guided by experience or experiment

Empirical

Doctrine that acts of will, occurrences in nature, or social or psychological phenomena are casually determined by preceding events or natural laws.

Determinism

Defining characteristics of behavior analysis

Applied
Behavioral
Analytical
Technological
Conceptually Systematic
Effective
Generality

A _______ ________ is a group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.

response class

____________ refers to a specific instance of behavior.

Response

A ________ ________ is a group of stimuli that share specific common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions.

stimulus class

A reflex is a _______ relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits (e.g. knee jerk or tap jus below the patella).

stimulus-response

A ___________ is considered a principle of behavior.

reinforcement

A principle of behavior describes a(n) _______ _______ between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables.

functional relation

Three-term contingency is the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior and is made of the following elements _______, _________, _____.

antecedent, behavior, consequence

Consequence can only affect _________ behavior.

future

What is a "history of reinforcement" and how does it help explain individual differences?

...

State a similarity and difference between positive and negative reinforcement.

They both increase instances of behavior. One adds a stimulus the other takes away an aversive stimulus.

State a similiarity and a difference between negative and positive punishment.

They both decrease the occurrence of a behavior. The negative punishment takes away wanted stimulus and positive punishment increases unwanted stimulus.

Assume you give a student in your class forced-choice preference assessment. On this preference assessment, computer time was ranked highest. What can you sat about computer time based on this information?

Computer time may be a reinforcer for this student.

New parent put a child to bed. The child begins to cry, so the parents comfort the child and allow the child to sleep with them in bed. Thus, when they put the child to bed in the future, she is more likely to cry. What has occurred in this situation?

The parents are positively reinforcing the crying.

The parents of child are very tired because they work hard and trying to raise a young child. The child begins to cry. When they put the child to bed in their own bed, the child stops crying. Therefore, in the future, they are more likely to put the child in their own bed. What has occurred in this situation?

The parents have been reinforced for putting the child in their bed via negative reinforcement.

Give an example of the Premack Principle.

Telling a child to eat his vegetables and then he can eat dessert.

Give a couple of examples of conditioned reinforcers?

Money and tokens

Ben becomes severely aggressive whenever another student takes toys away from him. When Ben hits them, the other children tend to return the toys they took. What can be said?

Ben's aggression has been positively reinforced by the child returning the toy to him.

National Public Radio often holds fund drives to raise money for their station. They frequently offer "prizes" for people who donate a certain amount of money. It's not clear whether this actually increases donations. What can you say about this situation?

The CD's function as a reward for donating money.

Unconditioned reinforcers are .....

Stimuli, such as food and water that are inherently reinforcing for individuals.

What is the advantage of generalized conditioned reinforcers?

They are less susceptible to satiation because they can be exchanged for a wide variety of other enforcers.

An s-delta is

a stimulus in the presence of which reinforcement is withheld if target response occurs.

An advantage to survey methods of evaluating preference is that they are relatively uncomplicated to conduct. A disadvantage of such a method is

They may not yield any more accurate information that chance.

Elsa conducted a preference assessment for Jordan, a 5 year old boy with autism with whom she works. She arranged 10 stimuli on a table and allowed him a little time to interact with stimulus prior to assessment. Then, she began her assessment, allowing Jordan to select a stimulus to play with. When Jordan finished playing with an item, Elsa put the toy away and allowed Jordan to select another toy. What form of preference assessment is this?

Multiple Stimulus

If one compares the effects of response dependent delivery of a stimulus to a response independent schedule of delivery of a stimulus to analyze whether or not the stimulus serves as a reinforcer, which assessment method is being used?

Multiple schedule reinforcer assessment

If one wants to determine the effectiveness of a stimuli as a reinforcer as the requirements to earn that reinforcer change over time, which assessment method would be most appropriate?

Progressive-Ratio schedule assessment

The stimulus change responsible for increasing responding is called a reinforcer. True or False?

True

The behavior that occurs temporally closest to the presentation of a reinforcer will be strengthened by its presentation. True or False?

True

In order for reinforcer to work, the individual must be aware that reinforcement has occurred. True or False?

False

As a general rule, it is safer to assume that a high preference item identified through a trial-based method of assessment is more likely to serve as a reinforcer than one identified via survey method of assessment. True or False?

True

Explain the concept of the arbitrary nature of reinforcement.

...

Explain why this statement is contradictory. I have tried every reinforcement program in the book, and not one has worked I still can't get Joseph to sit in his chair for more than 5 minutes.

Reinforcement increases behavior

Explain automatic reinforcement and provide a novel example of it.

...

Explain why the following statement is false. A conditioned reinforcer is called "generalized" because it reinforcer a wide range of behaviors.

...

What is the difference between a preference assessment and a reinforcer assessment?

...

Give an example of a secondary reinforcer and explain the circumstances under which it may have been paired with a primary reinforcer.

...

Give an example of a secondary reinforcer and explain the circumstances under which it may have been paired with a primary reinforcer.

...

Devon is driving his brand new car, sees a red light, and "hits" the gas. Devon's car is hit. Devon is fine but his brand new car is dented. In the future, under similar conditions, he no loner speeds up when he see a red light.
A: Sees red light
B: Hits gas
C: car crash
This is an example of...

positive punishment

Molly gets her book and starts reading. Molly's teacher ignores Molly. Molly continues to read her book. In the future under similar circumstances Molly gets her book and reads.
A. Molly get your book
B. Gets book, reads
C: Access to interesting story
This is an example of...

positive reinforcement

Antecedent: "Take out your pencil!
Behavior: Noncompliance, specifically, not following the teacher's direction the first time that it was given
Consequence: Removal of token from token board
This is an example of....

negative punishment

A: Gets a chill
B: Closes window
C: chill is removed
This is an example of....

negative reinforcement

A: Foul odor and the sight a full kitty litter box
B: Scooping the waste and pouring fresh litter
C: Foul odor is removed
This is an example of ...

negative reinforcer

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