people from Etruria, ( north of Rome) that took control of Rome and Latium. Ruled Rome for more than 100 years. Built up Rome, streets, temples. Skilled metal workers Rome became rich from mining and trade
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
a member of the noble families who controlled all power in the early years of the Roman Republic
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
a ruler who has complete power over a country
Farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population
the power to forbid or prevent; to prohibit, reject
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
Romans who fought without pay; supply their own weapons; eventually got small "spoils of victory"; valued loyalty, courage, and respect for authority.
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
lands under Roman rule
means "our sea" nickname for Medeterannean sea for romans
huge estates bought up by newly wealthy Roman citizens
Tiberius and Gaius, two brothers who urged the council of plebs to pass land-reform bills that called for the government to take back the public land held by large landowners and give it to those without land
Son-in-law of Augustus who became a suspicious tyrannical Emperor of Rome after a brilliant military career.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic
Veni, vidi, vici
I came, I saw, I conquered. (Julius Caesar)
Roman general; formed the Second Triumvirate along with Octavian and Lepidus. Later met Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and followed her to Egypt which led to warring between he and Octavian. Later committed suicide along with Cleopatra.
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace
she was the Queen of Egypt. Mark Antony fell in love with her. Octavian defeated the combined forces of Antony and her at the naval battle of Actium, later Antony and her committed suicide.
a complete count of the population by the government
the son of Agrippina, and the last of the Julio-Claudian emperors. I ruled from 54-68 A.D., and my appointment was controversial. I bankrupted the treasury and was blamed for a disastrous fire that swept through Rome. Rather than face certain assassination I killed myself.
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
"Romanized"and organized the empire- built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, Built Hadrians Wall across Britain, strengthened borders
means "Roman Peace;" specifically the term that refers to the peace and stability that Rome maintained within its borders during the early empire.
a Roman outdoor arena in which public games, such as chariot races, were held
Bread and circuses
A Roman bribery method of coping with class difference. Entertainment and food was offered to keep plebeians quiet without actually solving unemployment problems.
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
to poke fun at through wit or irony
a Roman poet who wrote of human emotions, odes, satires, and epistles (letters)
A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.
Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
This is Romes most famous domed structure, a temple to all the Roman gods (it still stand today).
the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Mathematician/Astronomer who believed the Earth was the center of the universe
A Greek physician who lived in Rome and was especially interested in the human body. His work became the absolute authority in human anatomy for over 1000 years
A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
Law of Nations
a branch of Roman law that was applied to citizens in all parts of the Empire regardless of nationality
Mystery religion based on worship of the sun god Mithras; it became popular among the Romans because of its promise of salvation.
Jews that rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66ce; unsuccessful, and Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed
Jesus Christ; the awaited king of the Jews.
A collection of authoritative Jewish writings that comment and interpret biblical laws.
The 12 men Jesus trained to carry the gospel to the world after his death
People who suffer or die for their beliefs
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
high-ranking church official with authority over a local area, or diocese
In the Roman Catholic faith, a geographical grouping of parishes under the jurisdiction of a Bishop.
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
title given to the heads of the Roman Catholic Church
any opinions opposed to officioal or established views or doctorines
study of religion and religious ideas
Believed reflection of prayer could lead to a deeper understanding of Jesus' teachings. (ca. A.D. 185-ca.254) was the most prolific writer and important theologian and biblical exegete in the eastern part of the Empire.
Roman historian who pointed out declining values in Roman society
Last of the "Good Emperors"; Well educated, loved philosophy; Opposed war but was forced to defend the frontier; Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs; End of the Pax Romana
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century
a Germanic general; took control of Western Roman Empire in A.D. 476
a soldier who fights for any country or group that will pay him
completed in ad 80. most famous concrete building. huge arena that could fit about 60,000 people. gladiator wars, games, entertanment center.