Government Ch 13 and 14

25 terms by aheisner

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Selective Service

an independent federal agency that administers compulsory military service

Enemy Alien

a citizen of a nation with which the United States is at war

Refugee

a person forced to leave her or his home or country seeking protection from danger

Jus Soli

the principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the place of birth

Jus Sanguinis

the principle that a person's nationality at birth is the same as that of his natural parents

Naturalization process

1. Sign a declaration of intent. 2. Live in the U.S. for 5 years (3 if you are married to a citizen) 3. File an application with INS. 4. Interview with and INS agent. 5. Pass the citizenship test. 6. Must be sworn in and take a citizenship oath.

Collective Naturalization

granting citizenship to a large group of people at one time

Tinker v. Des Moines

First Amendent right of symbolic speech. Wearing armbands in protest is protected free speech

Hazelwood school district vs. Kuhlmeier

1988- held that public school officials are in control of the editorial content of a student newspaper published as part of the school's journalism curriculum.

Dred Scott v. Sanford

The case that ruled that slaves were property and could not sue

Pure speech

the verbal expression of thought and opinion before an audience that has chosen to listen

Symbolic Speech

nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.

3 constitutional Limits of speech

No harassment, no fighting words, No copy wrighting

Exclusionary Rule

a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct

Cruel and unusual punishment

punishment prohibited by the 8th amendment to the U.S. constitution

Jim Crow Laws

Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

Miranda v. Arizona

Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.

New Jersey v. T.L.O.

Supreme court case in which it was decided that a student may be searched if there is "reasonable ground" for doing so.

Gideon v. Wainwright

A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government

Plessy v. Ferguson

sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

4th Amendment

Swarches and Seizures

5th Amendment

right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law

6th Amendment

Right to a fair, speedy trial

Affirmative Action

programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities

Patriot Act

This law passed after 9/11 expanded the tools used to fight terrorism and improved communication between law enforcement and intelligence agencies

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