the principle that a person's nationality at birth is the same as that of his natural parents
1. Sign a declaration of intent. 2. Live in the U.S. for 5 years (3 if you are married to a citizen) 3. File an application with INS. 4. Interview with and INS agent. 5. Pass the citizenship test. 6. Must be sworn in and take a citizenship oath.
Tinker v. Des Moines
First Amendent right of symbolic speech. Wearing armbands in protest is protected free speech
Hazelwood school district vs. Kuhlmeier
1988- held that public school officials are in control of the editorial content of a student newspaper published as part of the school's journalism curriculum.
the verbal expression of thought and opinion before an audience that has chosen to listen
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
New Jersey v. T.L.O.
Supreme court case in which it was decided that a student may be searched if there is "reasonable ground" for doing so.
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities